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Ancient Greece

History

The Mycenaean cilivization, influenced by the Minoan culture of Crete, flourished around 1600-1200 BC. It used an early form of Greek as a written language but this seems to have ended around 1100 BC. After the C14th BC, the Achaeans overran Greece and Crete and the Minoan and Mycenaean civilizations were destroyed. This was the period of the siege of Troy, probably around 1180 BC. The Dorian Greeks settled in the Peloponnese in c 1100, founding Sparta, and the Ionians left the mainland for the east Aegean in c 1000. From 750-550 BC, the Greeks began great traders and founded colonies around the coasts of the Mediterranean and the Black Sea. During the C6th BC, the main centres of Greek culture were the rich Ionian cities of Asia Minor.

Many Greek cities began as monarchies, came under the rule by a land-owning aristocracy and then became democracies. In Athens, Solon instituted debt reforms in 549 BC, the Psistratid tyranny was in control from 560-510 BC and Cleisthenes established a democracy after 510 BC. Sparta remained under the domination of the ruling race which was organized on military lines and dominated the population.

The Persian Empire took control of the Ionian cities and the unsuccessful Athenian-backed revolt of 499-4 BC provoked the invasion of Greece by Darius of Persia in 490 BC. He was defeated at Marathon and withdrew. A later invasion under Xerxes was delayed by the brave defence of Thermopylae by 300 Spartans but lost the sea-battle at Salamis in 480 and on land at Plataea in 479. The freed Ionian cities formed an alliance with Athens, the Delian League. Pericles, democratic ruler of Athens from 455-29 BC, tried to convert this into an Athenian Empire but this was prevented by the Peloponnesian War which destroyed Athenian political power although the city's art and literature were at their peak during the C5th.

Sparta became the leading power in Greece until it was overthrown by Thebes (378-1). The constant wars between the cities allowed Philip II of Macedon (359-36 BC) to establish supremacy over Greece. His son, Alexander the Great, conquered Persia and brought Greek culture to Asia and Egypt, with Alexandria in Egypt becoming a cultural and commercial centre. During the C3rd, the cities tried to remain independent from Macedon, Egypt and Rome by forming federations such as the Achaean and Aeolian leagues but Rome began to intervene in 214 BC and annexed Greece in 146. It remained a cultural centre under Roman rule, but the emperor Justinian closed the university of Athens in AD 529.

Ancient Greek Rulers

Athens

Archon Damasias c 584    
Solon c 570    
tyrant Pisistratus c 560    

Athenian Calendar

There were 12 lunar months so it was necessary to keep the lunar and solar calendars in phase. Each month began with the new moon and lasted until the next one.
Month

English Equivalent

Hekatombaion June-July
Metageitnion July-August
Boedromion August-September
Pyanepsion September-October
Maimakterion October-November
Poseideion November-December
Gamelion December-January
Anthesterion January-February
Elaphebolion February-March
Mounikhion March-April
Thargelion April-May
Skirophorion May-June

Titles/Ranks

Oligarch

Tetrarch

Demogogue

Ethnarch town or city magistrate

Macedon

In ancient times, this was a much larger area than modern Macedonia, stretching from the eastern Adriatic Coast to Epirus in the west. To the north, it was bordered by Moesia, to the south with Thessaly, to the east with Thrace with a narrow coastal strip reaching to the Hellespont. The original inhabitants were probably Germano-Celtic but after centuries of invasion they became mingled with people of Thracian, Illyrian and Dorian Greek origin.

The area had been divided into several small nations which were rarely at peace with each other but was united under one king by the mid C4th BC. Philip II and his son Alexander III (the Great) conquered a huge empire and spread Hellenic culture throughout the Mediterranean and Asia.
Ruler

Reign

Family/Succession

Wives

Alexander I c 450-310 BC    
Perdiccas II c 450-414    
Archelaus I 414-399    
Craterus 399 4 days killed Archelaus I  
Orestes 399-6 son of Archelaus I  
Aeropus II 396-2 killed Orestes  
Amyntas II 392-0    
Pausanius 390-89 son of Aeropus II  
Amyntas III 389-369    
Alexander II 369-8 son of Amyntas III  
Ptolemy 368-7 killed Alexander II  
Perdiccas III 367-359 son of Amyntas III  

Amyntas

359

infant son of Perdiccas III

 
Philip II 359-336 son of Amyntas III Olympias
Alexander III the Great 336-323 son of Philip II 1 Roxane 2 Stateira
Alexander IV 323-c310 killed by Cassander son of Alexander III (1)  
Philip III Arridaios 323-317 killed by Olympias son of Philip II Eurydike

Civil War

     
Antigonous Monopthalmos 306-1 Alexander III’s general  
Demetrius Poliorcetes 306-283 son of Antigonous  

Interregnum

     
Antigonous Gonatus 276-239 son of Demetrius  
Antigonous Doson - 221    
Philip V 221-179 adopted by Antigonous Doson  
Perseus 179- son of Philip V  
       

Sparta

There were normally two dynasties of kings, one to rule at home and one to command the army abroad.

Agiads

Cleomenes I 520-490    
Demaratus -491    
Leonidas 491-80 Half-brother of Demaratus  
       
Archidamus c 343    
       
Agis III - 331    
       
Agis IV -244    
Cleomenes III 235-23    
       

Eurypontids

Leotychidas II      

12 kings

     
Lycurgus      

Phrygia

Dynastic title Midas

Argos

Pheidon c 670    
       

Corinth

Periander c 625    

Greek Religion, Myth and Legend

Chaos - empty space which produced Ge (The Earth)

Titans

Name

Attributes

Spouses

Family

Astraeus father of stars    
Atlas carries world    
Coeus      
Cronos   sister, Rhea Zeus, Hestia, Demeter, Hera, Poseidon, Hades
Iapetus     Prometheus, Atlas, Epimetheus
Hyperion sun    
Helios sun, identified with Hyperion/Apollo    
Prometheus gave fire to man    

Gods

Name

Attributes

Parents/Family

Wives

Achelous river god daughter, Callirhoe  
Adonis Syrian deity    
Anteros mutual love half- brother of Eros  
Apollo (Cynthus, Phoebus, Loxias, Musagetes, the Pythian, ) father of Aristhaeus, Asclepius Cyrene, Coronis
Ares war    
Asclepius healing son of Apollo and Coronis  
Asopus river god    
Attis vegetation    
Charon ferries souls to Hades if paid    
Dionysus      
Enipeus      
Enyalios      
Epahus   son of Zeus and Io  
Erebus darkness son of Chaos  
Erechteus      
Eros love son of Zeus/Hermes and Aphrodite  
Evenus river god    
Hades Underworld son of Cronus and Rhea  
Helios sun   Perse, mother of Circe
Hephaestus earth, fire metalwork son of Zeus and Hera father of Charis Aphrodite?
Hermaphroditus joined with nymph Salmacis son of Hermes and Aphrodite  
Hermes (Atlantiades, Cyllenius) travellers, traders, thieves, winged messenger son of Zeus and Maia  
Hymen weddings    
Hypnus sleep    
Iasion/Iasius/Iasus lover of Demeter son of Zeus and Electra  
Myrtilus   son of Hermes  
Nereus sea son of Pontus and Ge Doris
Palaemon/Melicertes sea son of Athamas and Ino  
Pan man/goat, shepherds, mischief, panic    
Phorcys sea father of Ladon, Gracae, Echidne, Gorgons  
Poseidon sea and thunder (Hippios, Bluehaired)    
Priapus fertility, lust, donkey son of Dionysos and Aphrodite  
Proteus subject of Poseidon    
Triton sea son of Poseidon and Amphitrite  
Zeus chief father of Arcas, Castor, Polydeuces  
Phaeton charioteer of sun son of Helios and Clymene  
Idas   son of Poseidon + twin of Lunceus  
Silenus wise satyr tutor of Dionysus  
Uranus      

Goddesses

Name

Attributes

Parents/Family

Husbands

Aphaia      
Aphrodite love (the Cytherean)    
Arethusa river goddess    
Artemis Cynthia twin of Apollo  
Athene wisdom    
Demeter      
Dia mother    
Earth Gaea/Ge   mother of Uranus etc.  
Eos dawn    
Eris quarrels    
Hecate underworld, sorcery    
Hera orig living things, marriage childbirth Chronus and Rhea Zeus
Hestia hearth Zeus and Hera  
Hygeia health    
Ilithyia / Eileithyia childbirth Hera  
Leucothea foaming sea ‘white goddess’    
Metis   mother of Athene  
Mnemosyne memory daughter of Uranus + mother of the Musae Zeus
Nemesis retribution Oceanus  
Nike victory/competition Pallas and Styx  
Perse   Oceanus Helios
Persephone   Zeus and Demeter  
Psyche soul personified    
Rhodos/Rhode   Poseidon Helios
Selene identified with Artemis    
Tyche/Tuche luck Zeus  
Leto d Coeus + Phoebe Artemis and Zeus Apollo
Rhea   Ge and Uranus  
Tethys     Oceanus
Themis law, justice Ge and Uranus

mother of Horae and Moerae

Zeus (before Hera)

Musae/Muses

The nine daughters of Zeus and Mnemosyne, (Memory) daughter of Uranus
Calliope - epic poetry Clio - history Erato - mime
Euterpe - lyric poetry, music Melpomene - tragedy Polyhymnia - hymns
Terpsichore - song, dance Thalia - comedy Urania - astronomy

Charities/Graces

(orig. just Charis, wife of Hephaestus)
Aglaia Euphrosyne Thalia

Fates/Moirae

(Latin Parcae)

daughters of Zeus and Themis
Clotho spins thread of life
Lachesis measures thread
Atropos cuts thread

Nymphs

Acis Caenis Calypso Cassiopeia Echo Egeria
Galatea Idaea Leuce Oenone Parthenope Pluto
Syrinx Tyro        

Nereids

50 beautiful sea nymphs, daughters of Nereus + Doris
Amphitrite Thetis Peliea ?      

Oceanides

sea nymphs, 40 daughters of Oceanus

Naiads

fresh-water nymphs

Horae

(Hours)

Daughters of Zeus and Themis identified with nature and the seasons
Irene-peace          

Hyades

nymphs who looked after infant Dionysius on Mt Nys

Hesperides

‘daughters of evening’ Maidens who guarded golden apples with the dragon, ladon

Harpies

‘snatchers’ Spirits of the wind who carried people to their deaths, later winged monsters

Bacchae

Bassaris          

Gorgones

daughters of Phorcys and Ceto, sisters of the Gracae
Medusa Stheno Euryale      

Gracae

Three old women living on Mt Atlas who shared one eye and one tooth

Erinnyes

Three daughters of Mother Earth by the blood of Uranus who personified conscience and punished sacrilege. Called Eumenides - ‘Kindly Ones’ to ward them off?
Alecto Magaera/Megaeia Tisiphone

Pleiades

daughters of Atlas + Pleione
Electra Halcyone Maia (eldest) Merope    

Empusae

daughters of Hecate

Lamia d Belus

Epigoni

Descendants of the Seven Against Thebes

Centaurs

offspring of Ixion and a cloud, half men, half horses
Ch(e)iron (Philyrides)    

Arion - horse son of Zeus

Lapithae

Half brothers of the Centaurs led by Pirithoos, son of Ixion and Dia who married Hippodamia.
Elatus Phlegyas        

Giants

Gigantes : 24 sons of Ge and Uranus
Alcyoneus Enceladus Ephialtes Minas Pallas Polybotes
Porphyrion          
Enceladus Periphetes Tityus      

Laestrygones

giant cannibals led by Lamus

Hecatoncheires

100 handed giants, sons of Ge + Uranus
Gyes/Gyges Cottus Briareus/Acgaeon

Cyclopes

one-eyed giants
Arges Brontes Polyphemus Steropes    

Winds

Direction Name Parents Children
North Boreas   Calais, Zetes
South-East Eurus Astraeus and Eos  
South-West Notus/Auster Astraeus and Eos  
West Zephyrus    
       

Animals

Cerberus - dog who guarded Hades
Ceryneian Hind - had brass feet and gold antlers Caught by Heracles
Crommyum Sow - wild sow killed by Theseus
Laelaps - hound
Orthrus - two headed dog, son Ech +T
Pegasus - winged horse
Erymanthian Boar - captured by Herakles

Monsters

Name Appearance Parents  
Minotaur ˝ man, ˝ bull Pasiphae and Cretan Bull killed by Theseus
Echidne ˝ woman, ˝ serpent    
Typhon   Ge and Tartarus  
Chimeira lion head, goat body, serpent tail, firy breath Echidne and Typhon killed by Bellerophon
Hydra of Lerna   Echidne and Typhon  
Charybdis sea swallower    
Scylla turned into 6 headed monster by Ampitrite Zeus  
Geryon      
       

People

Hellen ancestor of Hellenes son of Phrrya and Deucalion  
Ion ancestor of Ionians    
Pelops   sons: Chrysippus, Atreus wife: Hippodameia

Priam

legendary king of Troy, son of Laomedon (originally called Podarces). Father of 50 sons and 50 daughters, 19 by Hecuba.

Sons
Deiphobus Hector Helenus Paris Polites Polydorus yg
Troilus          

Daughters
Polyxena Laodice Cassandra twin of Helenus

Spartii

‘sown men’ : sprang from dragon’s teeth sown by Cadmus. Five survived their fight.
Cthonius Echion Hyperenor Pelorus Udaeus  

Argonauts

sailed with Jason
Acastus Caeneus Calais Cepheus Echion Iphicles
Oileus Periclymenus Zetes      

Heroes

Achilles - son of Peleus and Thetis, father of Neoptolemus by Deidameia, d of Lycomedes
Ajax - fought Hector at Troy
Theseus
Aegeus - (T's father)
Acamas, Demophon, Hippolytos
Heracles ( Amphitroniades, Alcides)

Labrys (f) Twoheaded axe

Crete

Potnia mother goddess    

Ancient Greek Names

A child was named on the seventh or tenth day after birth. The father chose the name and could could change it later if he wished. The eldest son was usually named after his paternal grandfather and subsequent children after other relatives. It was quite rare for a son to be named after his father although a derivative of the name or one containing one of the same elements might be used.

Name Elements

ander/andros Man

andro

doro Gift

doron

theo/thy God

theos

Male

From the late C5th BC, Athenian males were often identified by adding their father’s name in the genitive case or that of their deme or tribe to their personal name. Foreigners also took the name of their town of country - Herodotus of Halicarnassus, the historian who lived in Athens. Nicknames were also common and could sometimes virtually supersede the original name. The philosopher ‘Plato’ was given this name which means ‘broad’ or ‘wide’ at the gymnasium and his own name, Aristocles after his grandfather, was hardly used.

Forms of names from older translations which are familiar in England are often being replaced by more phonetically correct versions. The ending ‘-dros’ has been replaced by ‘-der’ in English (Alexander for Alexandros) since medieval times. The hard 'k' sound has conventionally been written, and sometimes pronounced, as 'c' (Thucydides for Thukydides). Where a consonant preceded it, the ‘-os’ ending was quite often dropped (Philip for Philippos). The final '-s' was not pronounced in names such as ‘Krateros’, hence the confusion over Alexander the Great's dying words - did he leave his kingdom to ‘Krateros’, his trusted soldier, or to 'kratisto', the strongest? The final ‘-n’ is also dropped in some cases (Phaedo for Phaidon).
Abantes Abas Abascantus Abderos Aberkios Ablerus
Abreas Abronychus Abydos Acaeus Acamus Acessamenus
Acestes Aclepiades Acrisias Acrisius Acroneos Actor
Adeimanthos Adelphius Admetos Adrastos Adrastus Adrestus
Aeaces Aegaeon Aegicoros Aegisthes Aegon Aeimnestos
Aenesidemos Aeolus Aeropus Aeschreas Aesculapius Aesepus
Aeson Aesop Aetes Aethon Aetion Aetios
Aetolos Agamedes Agamemnon Agapenor Agapias Agastrophos
Agathocles Agathon Agelaus Agenor Agesilaus Agetos
Agis Agrias Aiantes Aias Aigeus Airopos
Aischylos Akadios Akamas Aktis Aktor Alastor
Alcaeos Alcandros Alcides Alcimos Alcinous Alcmaion
Alcman Alcon Alector Alektryon Aleuas Alexandros
Alexarchos Alexias Alexis Alexon Alkamenos Alkestis
Alketas Alkibiades Alkides Alkimachos Alkiphron Alkmaion
Aloeus Alphaeus Alpheos Alphesiboeus Alphios Altes
Alypius Amarinceus Ameinias Ameinokles Amiantos Amompharetos
Amopaon Amphiaraos Amphidamos Amphimachos Amphimnestus Amphinomous
Amphion Amphios Amphitrion Amyntas Amyntor Amyris
Amythaon Anabesineos Anacharsis Anakletos Anakreon Anastasios
Anaxagoras Anaxandridas Anaxandrides Anaxandros Anaxarchos Anaxilaus
Anaximander Anaximenes Anaxis Anaxos Anchialus Anchimolios
Anchises Ancus Andokides Andraemon Andreas Androbulos
Androcles Androdamos Androgeus Aneristos Aniketos Anisodoros
Antaeus Antagoras Antemion Antenor Anthemion Antichares
Antidoros Antigenes Antigonos Antikles Antilochus Antinous
Antiochus Antipatris Antipatros Antiphales Antiphones Antiphus
Antisthenes Anytos Anytus Apelles Apellicon Aphidnos
Apisaon Apollodoros Apollophanes Apollos Aratus Arcas
Arcesilaus Archagoras Archelaos Archeptolemus Archesilaus Archestratidas
Archilochus Archytas Arcidamus Arcturus Areilycus Areisius
Areithous Argades Argaeus Argos Aridolis Arion
Ariphron Aristaeus Aristagoras Aristaios Aristandros Aristarchos
Aristarchus Aristides Aristion Aristippus Aristoboulos Aristobulus
Aristocles Aristocypros Aristodemos Aristogeiton Aristomachos Ariston
Aristonous Aristonymos Aristophanes Aristophantes Aristos Aristotles
Aristoxenus Arrabaios Arridaios Arsenios Artemas Artemidoros
Artemios Artemisthenes Arybbas Asasthenes Ascalaphus Ascanius
Aschines Asius Asklepios Asonides Asopodoros Asopus
Asphalion Assaraeus Astacos Aster Asterion Asteropaeus
Astrabacus Astyanax Athamas Athenades Athenaeus Athenion
Athenodorus Atiphates Atreus Atrometos Attaginas Attaginos
Attalos Atymnius Atys Audax Augias Auletes
Autesion Autodikos Autolycus Autolykos Automedon Autonous
Axylus Azeus Bacchides Bacchios Bacchylides Bacenor
Bacis Baerius Balius Barates Bardas Basileides
Basileios Basilides Bathyaes Belos Bendis Bianor
Bias Bion Bisaltes Biton Blathyllos Boethus
Borus Boter Briareus Briarus Brison Brygos
Bucoli Bulis Burrhus Butacidas Callimachus Callimorphus
Carenos Carneades Carpophorus Carpus Casambus Castor
Ceas Cebriones Celeas Cephalos Cepheus Cephissos
Ceyx Chabrias Chaeremon Chairophon Chalcodon Chalcon
Charax Chares Charidemos Charilaus Charillos Charmides
Charon Charopos Cheiron Chersis Chileos Chilon
Choerilos Choeros Chremes Chremon Chremonides Chromis
Chromius Chrysaor Chryses Chrysippos Chrysogones Chrysogonus
Chrysolorus Cilix Cineas Cinyras Cisses Cisseus
Cleades Cleandros Cleathes Cleisthenes Cleobulus Cleodaeos
Cleombrotos Cleomenes Cleon Cleonicus Cleonymus Clinias
Clisthenes Clonius Clytius Clytomedes Cnoethos Cobon
Codros Coenus Coeranus Coes Cois Conon
Cöon Copreus Cordylion Coronos Corydallos Corydon
Crathis Cratinus Cratippus Cretheus Crethon Cretines
Crios Croesus Cronos Cteatus Ctesippus Cuphagoras
Cyberniskos Cycnus Cylon Cynaegiros Cyncus Cyneas
Cyniscus Cypselos Cyrenios Cytorissos Dadaces Daedalos
Daetor Damasippus Damasithymos Damasos Damastor Damian
Damianos Damiskos Damoetas Damon Danaos Danaus
Daphis Daphnis Dardanus Dares Davos Deinias
Deinokrates Deinomenes Deiotones Deiphobus Deiphonous Deipylus
Demades Demaratos Demarmenos Demas Demeas Demetrios
Democedes Democoön Demodocus Demokrates Demoleon Demonax
Demonous Demophlos Demosthenes Deon Derkylos Deukalion
Dexicos Dexios Diactorides Diadromes Diadumenus Diagoras
Dicaeus Dieneces Diocles Diodoros Diodorus Diokles
Diomedes Dionysios Dionysophanes Dionysos Diophantus Diores
Dioscuros Diotrephes Dismas Dithyrambos Dmetor Dolon
Dolops Doreios Doreius Dorian Doriskos Doros
Dorotheus Doryssos Dosithios Drimylos Dromeus Dryas
Dryops Ducetius Duris Dymas Dymnos Echëeus
Echekrates Echelaos Echemmon Echemus Echephron Echepolus
Echestratos Eetion Eioneus Eirenaios Elasus Elatos
Elatreus Eleon Elephenor Elpenor Elpides Elpidius
Empedocles Endios Endymion Engenes Eniopus Ennaeus
Ennomus Ennychus Enops Eos Epaenetus Epaphos
Epaphroditus Epeigeus Epeius Ephialtes Epicurus Epicydes
Epikrates Epimenes Epiphanes Epistor Epistrophos Epitrophos
Epizelos Erasistratus Eratosthenes Eratostheres Erechtheus Eretmenus
Ereuthalion Erginus Ergiyios Erichthonius Erxandros Eryalus
Erysichton Eryx Eryximachos Eteocles Eteokles Eteonous
Euaemon Eualcidas Euanthes Euarestos Eubalus Eubulus
Eucarpus Euchenor Eucleides Eudorus Eudoxsus Eudoxus
Euenius Euenor Euenus Eugammon Eugenios Eugenius
Euhemenis Euippus Eukles Eumaeus Eumastas Eumelus
Eumenes Eumneus Eumolpus Euneas Euonomos Eupalinus
Euphenes Euphorbos Euphorion Euphronios Eupolos Euripides
Euryanax Eurybates Eurybiades Eurycliedes Eurydamus Eurydemon
Eurydemos Euryhus Eurykrates Eurykratides Euryleon Eurylochos
Eurymachos Euryphon Eurypylos Eurystenes Eurysthenes Eurystheus
Eurysthios Eurythion Eurytos Eussorus Euthydemos Euthynos
Eutropios Eutuches Eutychides Eutychus Evaenetos Evagoras
Evandros Evanetus Evelthon Evenios Evenus Evios
Exaduis Exekias Faenus Galenus Gallus Ganymedes
Gauanes Geleon Gelo Gelon Gennadios Gerasimos
Giorgius Glaukias Glaukos Glycon Gnipho Gordias
Gorgias Gorgion Gorgos Gorgythion Gregorius Gryllus
Gurgos Gylippos Gyras Gyrtias Haemon Hagias
Hagnon Halisthertes Halius Harmatidas Harmocydes Harmodios
Harmon Harpagos Harpalion Harpalos Harpocras Hecataeus
Hegesandros Hegesistratos Hegetoridas Heirax Heiron Hektor
Helenos Helgesippos Helicaon Heliodorus Helios Helle
Hephaestos Herakleides Herakleitos Heraklides Hermeias Hermeros
Hermippos Hermogenes Hermolaos Hermolycus Hermon Hermotimos
Hero Herodes Herodianus Herodion Heromenes Hicetaon
Hiero Hieronymus Hipparchos Hipparinos Hippasus Hippias
Hippocoön Hippoklides Hippokratides Hippolytos Hippomachos Hippomenes
Hippon Hipponax Hipponicus Hipponous Hippotas Hippothous
Hippotion Hoiples Homeros Hyakinthos Hylas Hyllos
Hyllus Hypatius Hypeirochus Hypenor Hyperenor Hyperion
Hypsenor Hyrcanus Hyrtacus Hyrtius Iakchos Ialmenes
Iambulus Iamus Iasos Iatragoras Iatrokles Ibanolis
Ibykos Icarion Icarius Icarus Idaeus Idaios
Idas Idomeneus Ilioneus Illyrius Ilus Imbrasus
Imbrius Imbrus Inachos Inachus Inaros Iobates
Iolaos Iollas Ion Iphiclus Iphicrates Iphikrates
Iphinous Iphitos Iphitus Iros Irus Isagoras
Isandros Ischenous Isidor Isidoros Ision Ismaros
Ismenios Isocrates Isodemos Isokrates Itheus Itylus
Itys Kadmos Kaenas Kaeneus Kalchas Kalesius
Kaletor Kalliaros Kallias Kallikles Kallikrates Kallimachos
Kallinicus Kallinos Kallipides Kallipos Kallisthenes Kallon
Kameirus Kandaules Kannadis Kapaneus Kapys Karipos
Karopophores Kasos Kassandros Kaunos Kebalinos Kebes
Kekrops Keos Kephalon Kephalos Kerameikos Kerkyon
Keteus Kimon Kirphis Kittos Kleitos Kleobis
Kleomenes Koines Koinos Konon Koragos Korax
Kosmas Krantor Krateros Kreon Krinippos Kristos
Kritias Kritoboulos Kritodemos Kriton Kroisos Krokinos
Ktesiphon Kyknos Kynaegeiros Kyrillos Kyrios Kyros
Labdacus Labotas Laertes Lagos Laios Lamachos
Lampo Lampon Lampus Lamus Laodamas Laodocus
Laogonus Laomedon Laphanes Lasos Lasthenes Laureion
Leagros Leandros Learchos Leicritus Leitus Lemnus
Leo Leocedes Leodes Leon Leonidas Leonnatos
Leontiades Leontis Leoprepes Leotychides Lethos Leucippus
Leukos Lichas Licymnios Linus Loxias Lukos
Lycaon Lycaretos Lycidas Lycomedes Lycophon Lycophron
Lycoris Lycurgos Lycus Lydus Lygdamis Lykomedes
Lykon Lynceus Lysagoras Lysandros Lysanios Lysias
Lysikles Lysimachos Lysippos Lysippus Lysis Macar
Macarias Machaon Maeon Maiandrios Makarios Maleos
Males Mantes Mantios Marcion Marnes Maro
Maron Marsyas Mastor Matullus Mausolos Mecistes
Mecistios Medios Medon Medus Megadates Megakles
Megakreon Megapenthes Megareus Megasthenes Megathenes Meges
Megistias Meidias Melampos Melampus Melanippos Melanthios
Melanthos Melas Meleagros Melegros Meles Meliboeus
Melicertes Memnon Menalcas Menandros Menares Menekrates
Menelaos Menestas Menesthes Menesthios Menexinos Menoeces
Menoitios Mentes Mentor Meriones Mermerus Merops
Mesaulius Mesthles Methodios Metiochus Meton Metrobius
Metron Metrophanes Meurius Micythos Midas Midylos
Mikkos Mikon Milanion Miltiades Minos Misenus
Mnasyllus Mnesiphilos Mnester Mnesus Moeris Moliones
Molpagoras Monoecus Monomachus Mopsius Mopsus Morsimus
Morys Moschion Mulius Musaeus Musaios Mydon
Mygdon Myrsinus Myrto Mys Narkissos Nastes
Naubolus Naukles Nausithous Nauteus Nearchos Neleos
Nelpus Neokles Neoptolemos Neritos Nestor Niarchos
Nicandros Nicanor Nicholas Nicholaus Nicias Nicodromos
Nicolaus Nicomachos Nicon Nikandros Nikanor Nikasios
Nikeratos Nikias Nikomachos Nikomedes Nilus Nireus
Nisos Noemon Nomion Nothon Numa Nyctinus
Nymphicus Nymphodorus Ocealus Ochesius Ochos Ocytos
Odaenathus Odius Odysseus Oeagnus Oecleus Oedipus
Oenemaus Oeneus Oenomaus Oenopion Oenops Oicles
Oileas Oliatos Olus Olympicus Olympiodorus Onamakritos
Onesilos Onesimos Onesiphorus Onetas Onetor Onias
Onomastos Ophelestes Opites Ops Orcus Orestes
Oresus Orges Oribasius Orion Orius Oroites
Orpheus Orsilochus Orsiphantes Orthaeus Orythroneus Otreus
Otrynteus Otus Paeëon Paios Palaechthon Palaemon
Pallans Pallas Palmys Pammon Panaetios Panaetius
Panares Pandaros Pandion Panionos Panites Pankratios
Pantares Panthous Pantites Paopeus Paraebates Paris
Parmenides Parmenion Parthenopaeus Pasion Pataicos Patrobas
Patrobus Patroclus Patron Pausanius Pedaeus Pedasus
Pedocles Peirithous Peiros Peisandros Peithon Pelagon
Pelegon Peleus Pelias Pelicles Pelonus Pelopidas
Peneleos Peneus Pentheus Penthylos Peolpidas Perdikkas
Perdix Periandros Periclymenus Perieeres Perikles Perimedes
Perimos Periphas Periphetes Periscus Peritas Periumus
Peteos Peukestes Phaedo Phaenippos Phaeops Phaestus
Phaidon Phaidriades Phalanthus Phalces Phalinos Phanagoras
Phancis Phanes Phanias Phantias Pharnaces Phausius
Phegeus Pheidias Pheidippides Pheidon Phemius Phereclus
Pherecydes Pheres Pheronactus Phidias Phigaleios Philagros
Philaon Phileas Philemon Philetor Philiskos Philistos
Phillipos Philocion Philocrates Philoctetes Philocypros Philoetius
Philogus Philokles Philokrates Philolaos Philologus Philomen
Philomenes Philometer Philon Philonikos Philopoemon Philostratos
Philostratus Philotas Philotectes Philoxenos Philpoemon Phineus
Phintias Phlaris Phlegon Phlios Phoenix Phoibus
Phoinix Phoitios Phokas Phokion Phorbas Phorcys
Phormion Phormos Photius Phrixus Phrynichos Phrynikos
Phrynon Phylacus Phylas Pidytes Pigres Pinder
Pirithoos Pisistratos Pistias Pittacos Pittacus Pittheus
Pixodarus Plades Pleistarchos Pleistos Plutarch Podaeleirus
Podaleirus Podalinus Podarces Podargos Podaroes Podes
Poeas Poecas Poimen Polemion Poliadas Pollio
Polyas Polybius Polyctor Polydectes Polydeuces Polydius
Polydoros Polyeides Polygonus Polykleitos Polykles Polykritos
Polymedes Polyneices Polypemon Polyperchon Polyphemous Polyphetes
Polyphontes Polypoetes Polyxeinus Ponteus Porphyrios Porphyrius
Poseidon Posides Posidonios Potamon Pratinos Praxilaus
Praxis Praxiteles Praxites Prexinos Priam Prinetadas
Priskos Procrustes Proctus Proetus Prokles Prokopios
Prokrustes Proreus Protagoras Protesilaus Prothoenor Prothous
Protogenes Protus Proxenos Prymneus Prytanis Ptolemaios
Ptolomaeus Pylades Pylaemenes Pylaeus Pylartes Pylas
Pylenor Pyris Pyrrhus Pythagoras Pytheas Pythes
Pythios Pythogenes Radamanthos Rhadamanthos Rhesus Rhexenor
Ribes Rizon Sabas Sabyllos Salmoneus Sarpedon
Satyros Scaios Scamandius Scamandrius Schedius Scylax
Scyllias Scythas Sebastos Seisames Selagus Seldomus
Selepos Seleukos Sicinnos Siculus Silanos Silenos
Simmias Simo Simoisius Simonides Sinis Sinon
Sippas Siromos Sisyphus Skiron Smindyrides Smintheus
Socus Sophanes Sophokles Soranus Sosibios Sosicles
Sosigines Sosilus Sosimenes Sosipatros Sosthenes Sostias
Sostratos Spertias Speudon Speusippos Spinther Spirodion
Stachys Stentor Stesagoras Stesanor Stesilaus Sthenelaus
Sthenelus Stichius Stolos Strabo Strachys Stratios
Straton Strophantes Strophius Strymon Syagros Syennesis
Syloson Synesius Talaemenes Talaos Talaus Talos
Talthybios Tarchon Taureas Tebaeus Tecton Teiresias
Telamon Telekles Telemacho Telemachos Telemachus Telephos
Telephus Telesinus Telesphorus Telines Tellias Tellis
Telys Temenos Tenes Tenes Tenthredon Tereus
Terillos Teucer Teukros Teutamos Teuthranes Teuthras
Thales Thalpius Thalysios Tharybis Thaulos Thaumastus
Theagenes Theages Theas Theasides Themistius Theoclymnius
Theocydes Theodekles Theodoros Theodotus Theognis Theomestor
Theomestros Theophanes Theophrastos Theophrastus Theophylaktos Theopompos
Theopompus Theopropides Theoros Theos Theramenes Therapon
Theras Thero Theron Thersandros Therseandros Thersilochus
Thersites Thessalos Thestor Thettalos Thoas Thon
Thoön Thorax Thrasidaios Thrasilaus Thrasius Thrasybulos
Thrasyllus Thrasymedes Threspotus Thukydides Thyestes Thymoetes
Thymotes Thyrsis Thyrsos Timagenidas Timagoras Timais
Timanthes Timasion Timasitheus Timesithius Timnes Timoleon
Timon Timonax Timotheus Timoxenos Tiro Tirynthius
Tisamenos Tisandros Tisias Tithonius Titormos Tityrus
Tlepolemus Tmolus Trechus Triopas Triptolemus Triton
Troezenus Trophimus Trophnus Tros Trypho Turrianus
Tychaeus Tydeides Tydeus Tymnes Tyndareus Tyndarios
Ucalegon Vettias Xanthippos Xanthippus Xanthos Xenagoras
Xenokrates Xenophanes Xenophon Xiphilinus Xuthos Xuthus
Zagreus Zamolxis Zenicetes Zenodoros Zephyrinus Zethus
Zeuxidamos Zeuxis Zosimus      

Female

Women’s names followed the same system as men’s but took feminine endings such as Chryseis, the daughter of Chryses. An unmarried woman was also identified by her patronymic and on marriage, took her husband’s name instead. If widowed, she would replace this with her son’s name. Again, 'c' has traditionally replaced 'k' in English spellings. The final ‘-e’ is often written as ‘-a’.
Achaia Achradina Actaëe Actë Ada Adeia
Aedon Aegiolea Aegle Aerope Aethre Agamede
Aganippe Agape Agapia Agarista Agathé Agathonice
Agave Aglaia Aglaurus Aikaterine Aithra Aketa
Alcandre Alcestis Alcippe Alcmene Alcyone Alemene
Alkmena Althaea Althaia Althea Amarhyllis Amathea
Amatheia Amphithoe Amphitrite Ampinomene Amplias Anais
Anastasia Andromeda Antehe Anteia Antheia Anthousa
Anthusa Anticleia Antigone Antiochis Antiope Anysia
Appollonia Apseudes Arete Arethusa Argeia Ariadne
Arisbe Aristonike Aristophane Arsinoe Artemidora Artemisia
Aspasia Astera Astyoche Astyocheia Atalanta Atë
Athis Auge Augo Autonoe Auxesia Axiothea
Barbara Basiane Baucis Berenike Bito Briseis
Caenis Caleope Callianeira Callianessa Calliphana Calypso
Canace Castianiera Charis Chione Chiore Chloë
Chloris Chryse Chryseis Chrysothemis Cilissa Cilla
Circe Clio Clymene Clymere Colubra Corythia
Cratais Creusa Crisa Ctimene Cybele Cydippe
Cymodoce Cymothoe Cyrene Cythereia Cytheris Damaris
Damia Danaë Deianeira Deineira Deiphobe Deipyle
Delias Demetria Demophile Dexamene Dianeme Diomede
Dione Dirce Doris Dorothea Doto Drosis
Dynamene Egeria Egina Eidothee Eileithyia Elcmene
Electra Elpir Endeis Enyo Eos Epicaste
Eriboea Erigone Eriopis Eriphyle Eris Eucarpia
Eudokia Eunice Euodias Euphro Euphrosyne Europa
Eurycleia Eurydike Eurynome Evadne Galatea Glauce
Glyke Gorgo Gygaea Haidee Halie Harmodias
Harmonia Hecuba Hekabe Hekaline Hekate Helice
Helike Heliodora Hellanike Helle Hermine Hermione
Hero Herophile Hesione Hilaera Hippodameia Hippodamia
Hippolyta Hypsipyle Hyrmina Iaera Ianeira Ianessa
Ianthe Ino Iola Iolanthe Iole Iomene
Ione Iphianassa Iphigenia Iphimedeia Iphis Iphitheme
Irene Iris Isadora Ismene Issa Jocasta
Kallisto Kallixeina Kassandra Katana Katina Kephissa
Kharmion Khlöe Khloris Kleio Kleopatra Klymene
Klytemnestra Koré Koritto Kydilla Kynna Kynthia
Kypris Kyra Labda Lais Lalage Lampetie
Lampito Lanike Laodameia Laodamia Laodice Laothoe
Lasthena Latona Leda Lede Leto Leucothea
Leucothoë Limnoreia Lois Lyra Maeonia Maera
Maia Maiandria Marpessa Medea Medesicaste Megaera
Megara Megare Melanie Melantho Melissa Melita
Melite Menelaia Merope Metis Metriche Milo
Milto Molpadia Monima Monime Mykale Myrine
Nausicaa Neaera Nemerte Nephele Nesaea Nicopolis
Nikaia Nikasepolis Niko Niobe Nysa Oenone
Oitane Olympias Omphale Oreithuia Oreithyia Orithyia
Orthia Otonia Pales Panope Panora Parthenia
Parthenope Pasiphae Pelopia Penelope Penthesilea Percalus
Perialla Periboea Pero Perse Persephone Persis
Pervica Pervinca Phaedra Phaedre Phaethusa Phaia
Pherenike Pherusa Phigaleia Philea Philinna Philomache
Philomela Philona Phoebe Phryne Phylace Phylia
Phyllis Phylo Phylomedusa Podarge Polycaste Polydamna
Polydora Polymede Polyxena Procne Procris Prone
Proto Protogonia Psamathe Psyche Pylia Pyrrha
Pythias Raisa Rhea Rhene Rhoda Rhode
Rhodope Roxane Sappho Scylla Sebasteia Semele
Sophia Sotera Speio Stheneboea Stratonice Tecmessa
Telephassa Thais Thalassa Thaleia Theano Thebe
Thelma Themis Theodotis Theophane Theophania Theophano
Theresa Thessala Thessalonike Thetis Thisbe Thoë
Thoösa Thyia Timandra Timo Tryphena Tryphosa
Tyro Xanthe Xanthippe Xantippe Xene Xenophile
Zenobia Zita Zoe      

Hellenic Names

Many cities of classical Greece established colonies and Alexander the Great of Macedon acquired a huge empire, spreading Greek culture throughout the Asian and Mediterranean kingdoms.

Illyria

North of Macedonia

Male

Bardelys Kossos Kotys Malalas Scerdilaides

Female

Audata Teuta        

Rulers

Teuta c 231-    

Thrace

This was the region to the north of Macedonia. It reached from the western side of the Hellespont to just east of Philippi but the borders were not clearly defined. The inhabitants were a mixture of German, Celtic and Illyrian tribes that had been settled in the region long enough to be called Thracian. They were considered barbaric by the Greeks and Romans (who called the area ‘Thracia’)and never managed to organise against Rome. Part of Thrace was governed with Macedonia after the Attalid wars of succession ended in 129 BC. Under Roman occupation, the area was important as the Via Egnatia, the main Roman route from the Adriatic to the Hellespont, was built through it. The largest city was the old Greek colony of Byzantium.

Male

Agenor Aracos Calcus Kersobleptes Lambaros Lycurgus
Matygus Oeagrus Oloros Phineus Rhesus Sdapeze
Sdapezematygus Sita Sitalces Tegyrius Teres Zagreus

Female

Harpalyce Idaca Thalestris      

Lydia

Male

Alyattes Ardys Gyges Sadyattes  

Rulers

Gyges / Gugu 670-52    
Alyattes c 575    

Thessaly

Abgar? Kotyphosi        

Amazons

Female

Hippolyta Penthesilea Radegunde      

Bosphorus

Male

Asander Scribonius        

Female

Dynamis          

Palmyra

Male

Varates

Rulers

Odenathus c 261 AD   Zenobia

Nabataea

kingdom to the south of Syria near Persian Gulf (now Jordan)
      a Seleucid of Syria
Aretas     daughter of Demetrius Nicanor of Syria

Sarmatia

kingdom north of Euxine/Black Sea

Male

Aspurgus          

India

Alexander the Great reached here with his armies and made contact with several native leaders who were given Greek names.
Kalanos Musicanus Omphis Poros  

Pannonia

Breucus

Lycia

Philagrus Eudemus

Anatolia

The area which is now Turkey was divided into several small kingdoms in ancient times.

Pontus

This large kingdom was towards the east of the Euxine or Black Sea. The Greeks established several colonies (Trapezus, Sinope, Amisus), bringing the Hellenic culture to the region in the centuries before Roman domination of the Mediterranean.

The Mithridatid ruling dynasty were of mixed Germanic and Celtic origin with some Persian blood. They intermarried with the Seleucids of Syria and became increasingly Hellenized. Many smaller kingdoms paid tribute to the Pontic kings rather than being directly ruled by them. Mithridates V bought Phrygia from the Roman governor under Mithridates VI the Great, Pontus expanded into neighbouring countries (Cappadocia, Galatia) and made an alliance with Tigranes of Armenia. Mithridates ordered the killing of the Roman and Italian inhabitants of Rome’s Asia Province and the country was invaded by Rome in 87 BC.

Male

Archelaus Asklepiodorus Diophantus Leonippus Machares Metrophanes
Mithridates Neoptolemus Pelopidas Pharnaces Polemo Taxiles

Female

Mithridatidis Nyssa        

Rulers

Mithridates IV c 130 BC   Laodice dau Ptol Soter of Egypt
Mithridates V -120   his sister, Laodice
Mithridates VI Eupator c 120-63 son of Mithridates V his sister, Laodice

Nysa of Cappadocia

Antiochis of Syria

Pharnaces -47 son of Mithridates VI  

Pergamum

This consisted of the western or Aegean coast and Phrygian hinterland of modern Turkey and several coastal islands (Chios, Lemnos, Lesbos, Samos). The inhabitants were descended from Aeolian, Dorian and Ionian Greek colonists.

It became the Roman Asia Province after King Attalus bequeathed it to Rome in 133 BC despite the claims of his cousins who declared war on Rome but were defeated by Roman forces under Manius Aquillius by 128 BC. Aquillius re-organised the area to form a province, selling Phrygia to Mithridates V of Pontus and taking the money himself.

Rulers

Attalus I 241-    
Eumenes II 197-    
Attalus III -133 left kingdom to Rome  
Mithridates VI of Pontus c 92    
       

Phrygia

This was one of the wilder Anatolian kingdoms, inland from Bithynia. It was bordered by Paphalgonia to the north, Pisidia to the south and Galatia to the east. It became part of the Attalid empire of Pergamum and was sold to Mithridates V of Pontus by the Roman Proconsul Manius Aquillius after Attalus III left his kingdom to Rome in 133 BC.

Barsaces

Bithynia

This was a rich kingdom in what is now north-western Turkey which controlled the Hellespont, the Tracian Bosphorus and the Propontis. It was bordered by Paphlagonia and Galatia in the east, Phrygia in the south and Mysia in the south-west. The ruling family were of Thracian origin. During the reign of Prusias II, Bithynia was given the title ‘Friend and Ally of the People of Rome’ which gave it protection against the traditional enemy, Pontus. King Mithridates VI of Pontus laid claim to the area in the late C2nd BC.

Rulers

Zipoetes?      
Prusias I      
Prusias II      
Nicomedes I      
Nicomedes II - c 91 BC   Laodice of Cappadocia
Nicomedes III Philopater 91- son of Nicomedes II  

Cappadocia

A central Anatolian mountain kingdom, Cappadocia was ruled by a dynasty of kings who usually took the title ‘Ariarathes’. The kingdoms of Syria to the south and Pontus to the north both wanted control of this fertile kingdom and it was ruled by Pontic puppet kings set up by Mithridates VI of Pontus (who married the daughter of a Cappadocian noble, Gordius) around 100 BC.
Ariarathes VI     Laodice II, sister of Mith VI Pontus
Ariarathes VII Philometor c 98 BC son of Ariarathes VI  

Ariobarzanes

   

Laodice, cousin of Ariarathes VI?

Gordius c 92 BC father-in-law of Mith VI Pontus  
Ariarathes VIII Eusebes Philopator   son of Mith VI Pontus + Nysa, G’s dau  
Ariarathes IX?      
Ariarathes X   son of Mith VI Pontus  

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