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Ancient Rome

History

The city of Rome developed from a group of villages in the C7th and C6th BC. At this time Italy contained a wide mix of peoples of whom the Etruscans were dominant until Rome began to expand, gaining control first of the neighbouring Latin tribe and later most of Italy although Greek influence remained strong in the south and Sicily. This control was extended by conquest and bequest to North Africa and the eastern Mediterranean by the mid C2nd BC. Italy was unified politically by the extension of citizenship in 90-89 BC, but the Republican constitution weakened and a series of military dictators (Sulla, Pompey, Caesar) took power during the C1st BC.

After Caesar’s death in 44 BC, the Triumvirate of Mark Anthony, Lepidus and Octavian, Caesar’s nephew, was shortlived and Octavian finally defeated the forces of Anthony and the Egyptian queen, Cleopatra, at Actium in 31 BC to become undisputed ruler of the entire Roman world, including Egypt. In 27 BC he was given the title ‘Augustus’ which led to his deification, and his dynasty was to remain in power until the death of Nero in AD 68.

Despite native resistance, usurpations of Imperial power and civil war, the Empire continued to expand to such an extent that it became necessary to divide it for governmental purposes. Diocletian (accession 284) shared power with a joint Augustus and two subordinate Caesars. By this time, the centre of power was shifting to the east. Constantine established a new, Christian capital at Byzantium (renamed Constantinople in AD 330) and in practice the Empire broke into an eastern and western half with outlying provinces being conquered by barbarian invaders.

Rome was sacked by the Visigoths and Vandals in the C5th AD, the first people to directly attack Rome since the Celts in 390 BC, and the Ostrogoths founded a kingdom in Italy in AD 393. Although Justinian tried to reunite the two halves he was unsuccessful and the Western Empire fell to the invaders. The Eastern Empire lasted until Constantinople fell to the Turks in 1453. It retained Roman institutions and Latin as an official language for two centuries until Greek took over. Latin, however, remained the language of the Church and science and many modern European legal systems are based on Roman law.

Roman Government

Assemblies (Comitia)

comitia centuriata patricians + plebeians

(5 economic classes divided into centuries)

elected consuls, praetors, censors
comitia populi tributa patricians + plebeians

(voted in 35 tribes)

elected quaestors, curule aediles, tribunes of soldiers
comitia plebis tributa plebeians only

(voted in 35 tribes)

made laws (plebiscites) conducted trials, elected pleb aediles, tribunes of plebs

The Senate (Senatus)

This was traditionally believed to have been founded by Romulus but was probably set up as an advisory body by the kings of Rome. It originally consisted of 100 patrician men but by the time of the Republic, there were 300 members and plebeians were allowed to become senators. They were divided into 30 decuries led by a patrician ‘interrex’ (this ensured that there were always at least 30 patrician senators) and the leader, or ‘Princeps Senatus’ also had to be a patrician. Once a man became a senator, he remained one for life but could be expelled by the censors who elected new senators. Not all of them were allowed to speak (those who weren’t, the ‘senatores pedarii’, sat behind those who were) but everyone could vote. The Senate controlled the treasury, foreign affairs, war and the running of the provinces, including the appointment of provincial governors. Although it was legally only an advisory rather than a legislating body, decrees were often accepted as law by the Comitia. Towards the end of the Republic era, the Senate was allowed to pass the Senatus consultum republica defenda, an ultimate decree which proclaimed its own sovereignty and meant that no one man was able to become a dictator. Only men over 30 could enter the senate, and it was customary for a senator to have an income of at least 1 million sesterces a year although this does not seem to have been a formal law during the Republic.

Magistrates and Officials

Position

Number

Requirements

Duties

dictator

(2nd in command master of horse)

1 in military emergency only only 6 month term

could be indicted for offences afterwards

defending Rome
censor

(senior magistrate)

2 every 5 years could not stand if had been consul regulated senate + eques membership, conducted census, applied means test, public works, state contracts
consul

(senior magistrates)

2 a year (senr + junr)

pat or pleb by C1st BC (not 2 pats)

age 42 or 12 years after entering senate command armies, held ‘fasces’
consul suffectus

(sustitute consul)

if consul died or was incapable of continuing appointed by Senate, with remaining consul present those of consul
proconsul yearly term but could be elected more than one year running usually year after being consul imperium outside Rome

consular powers, governed provinces,

army commanders

praetor

2nd level magistrate

one until 242 BC

then 2 (urbinus and peregrinus)

 

 

227 BC 4 a year

197 BC 6-8

governed provinces

Sicily, Corsica-Sardinia

two Spanish provs

praetor urbinus 242 BC one a year could only leave Rome for 10 days law courts
praetor peregrinus 242 BC one a year travelled constantly justice outside Rome and for non-citizens
propraetor invented in 242 BC    
aediles 2 plebeian 493 BC

 

 

 

 

 

 

2 curule 367 BC

  assist tribunes of plebs,

guard rights of plebs streets, drains, water supply, buildings, markets, public grain supply, games

gave patricians share in control of archives and public buildings

quaestor c 12-16 every year Dec 5th had to be 30 yrs old fiscal duties customs, port dues, rents, provincial finances
tribune of the plebs 10 by 450 BC 149 BC became senators automatically less power because not elected by full assembly but could veto acts of any magistrates defended life and property of plebs
tribuni militum tribunes of the soldiers 24 every year, originally 6 per legion c 25-29 yrs old elected by full assembly therefore magistrates
tribuni aerarii -   army pay before quaestors, civil servants, treasury?
College of lictors

(public servants )

about 200 or 300

groups of 10 under prefect

  escorted holders of ‘imperium’

wore crimson tunic outside Rome

custodes minor officials   electoral procedures (tallies, ballots)

Cursus Honorum

This was the ‘way of honour’ or series of steps a man had to go through in order to become a consul and have himself and his family enobled.
Quaestor either before or after entering senate
senator at age of 30
praetor 9 years after entering senate
consul could stand 2 years being after praetor

Economic Classes

Class

Members

Qualifications

Senators - separated from knights 123 BC patrician and plebeian nobility 1 million sesterces income a year
Ordo Equester

(equites/knights)

originally 1800 keepers of Public horse

sons + families of senators

400 000 sesterces income a year
Third Class    
Fourth Class    
Fifth Class    
Capite Censi/head count

Proletarii

too poor to vote in comitia  

Priests (pontifex, pontifices)

Title

Members

Duties

Electors

flamen, flamines 3 major

f. Dialis Jup.Opt.Max.

f. Martialis - Mars

f.Quirinalis Quirinus

12 minor

f Dialis

head of state religion, supervised priestly colleges

 
College of Augurs 6 patricians

6 plebeians

priests of divination, carried lituus or curved staff self appointing until 104 BC, then elected by 17 tribes drawn by lot
College of Epulones originally 3, 8 or 10 by later Republic organised feasts on religious holidays  
fetials minor priests    
       

The Toga

Only full Roman citizens were entitled to wear the toga. It was made of wool and varied in length over time. It was probably not a perfect rectangle but was about 15 feet by 7 feet six (4.6 by 2.25 metres) for a man. There were several different togae.

Name

When worn

Colour

toga alba/pura/virilis manhood (16 years) plain white or cream
toga pulla mourning black
toga candida those wanting to be elected magistrate pure white
toga picta triumphing general, kings of Rome purple
toga praetexta curule magistrate, boys and girls purple edged
toga trabea augur, probably pontifex red and purple stripes, purple border

Calendar

Events were dated from the founding of the city of Rome - ab urbe condita or a.u.c. - which took place in 753 BC or Year One to the Romans.

There were originally only ten months with New Year on the Kalends of Martius, until King Tarquinius Priscus added two more, Ianuarius and Februarius, at the beginning. After his successor, Tarquinius Superbus, was deposed, Martius became the first month again but eventually the new system was adopted permanently. The year was only 355 days long so the calendar was not often synchronized with the seasons unless the College of Pontifices carried out its duties properly and added 20 days to the month of February every two years. July and August took their names from the first Empeors, Julius Caesar and Augustus.

Days of the month were counted backwards from one of the nodal points, i.e. three days before the Kalends of May (27th April), five days after the Nones of January (10th January). The year was divided into holidays (fasti) and non holidays (nefasti) and a list was put up on public buildings to tell people when meetings could be held, when the feasts would be and which days were ill-omened.

Months

English Name

Latin Name

Number of Days

Date of Kalends

Date of Nones

Date of Ides

January Ianuarius 29 1 5 13
February Februarius 28 1 5 13
March Martius 31 1 7 15
April Aprilis 29 1 5 13
May Maius 31 1 7 15
June Iunius 30 1 5 13
July Quintilis (Iulius) 31 1 7 15
August Sextilis (Augustus) 29 1 5 13
September   29 1 5 13
October   31 1 7 15
November   29 1 5 13
December   29 1 5 13

Days

English

Latin

Sunday Dies Solis
Monday Dies Lunae
Tuesday Dies Martis
Wednesday Dies Mercuri
Thursday Dies Iovis
Friday Dies Veneris
Saturday Dies Saturni

Numbers

There were no separate characters for numbers in Latin. Those used in Europe today are based on Arabic numerals. The Romans used letters instead.
I 1
II 2
III 3
IV or IIII 4
V 5
VI 6
VII 7
VIII 8
IX 9
X 10
L 50
C 100
D 500
M 1000

Money

as, ases 10 = 1denarius bronze
sestercius, sesterces (HS) semis tercius or 2.5 ases

4 = 1 denarius

silver
denarius, denarii 6250 = 1 silver talent silver (about 3.5 grams)
talent load a man could carry c 50-55lb

Roman Legions

These consisted of about 5 000 infantry soldiers divided into ten cohorts of six centuries, which were further divided into 8-man units who ate and slept together, often a small cavalry squadron, and about 1000 non-combatants. A consul’s legion was commanded by up to six elected military tribunes but if the general was not a consul at the time, it was under a legate or the general himself.

Titles

Base

Creator

I Minervia Rhine  
I Italica Lower Moesia  
I Adiutrix Misenum/Upper Pannonia Nero
II Adiutrix Misenum fleet Nero
I Germanica Bonna  
II Parthica   Septimius Severus
II Augusta Rhine, Britain  
III Augusta    
III Syrenaica Arabia  
III Gallica Syria  
IV Scythica Syria  
IV Macedonia Rhine  
V Macedonica Moesia  
VI Valeria Victrix Lower Germany, Britain  
VI Ferrata Palestine  
VII Claudia Danube  
XI Hispana    
X Gemina Upper Pannonia  
X Fretensis    
XI Claudia    
     
XIV Gemina Marcia Victrix Rhine Augustus
XV Primigenia Vetera  
XV Apollinaris Upper Euphrates  
XVI Gallica Novaesium  
     
XX Valeria Marcia Victrix Britain  
XXI Rapax    
XXII Primigenia Upper Germany  
     
XXX Ulpia Victrix Lower Rhine  

Military Ranks

imperator (Emperor) originally meant ‘general‘
legatus commander (had to be of senatorial rank)
prefectus prefect
praefectus fabrum civilian appointed by general to equip and supply all the army’s needs
tribunus (senior + junior) legate’s staff
primipilus (primus pilus - first spear) leading centurion
princeps senior auxiliary centurion
specularius spy
cornicularis head of commissariat
centurion commanded 100 men (about 60 per legion)
decurion commanded 10 men
contubernalis subaltern or military cadet
miles gregarius ordinary soldier or legionary
Imaginifer standard bearer
   
auxiliaries non-citizen legions, often conquered tribesmen

Crowns

A crown or corona was a military decoration awarded for acts of bravery.

Crown

(most important first)

Translation

Awarded for:

Corona Graminea grass crown saving a whole legion or army
Corona Civica civic crown, oak leaves saving lives of fellow soldiers, and holding the ground to the end of the battle
Corona Aurea gold crown killing an enemy in single combat and holding the ground to the end of the battle
Corona Muralis crenellated gold crown being first over the walls when storming a city
Corona Navalis gold crown decorated with ships’ beaks bravery during a sea battle
Corona Vallaris gold crown being first across ramparts of an enemy camp

Roman Voting Tribes

The three original tribes from which the Romans were descended were the Tities, Luceres and Ramnes.

The sixteen oldest voting tribes had the names of old patrician gentes. Their members were either from patrician families or lived on land owned by them. As Rome gained more land in the Italian peninsula, more were added, the last in 241 BC. Every member had a vote in the tribal assembly. When they were counted, the majority was taken and cast as the single vote of the tribe. This meant that the large numbers of citizens in the four urban tribes could not influence voting as all tribes had equal voting power. Members of rural tribes could live in Rome and remain part of their original tribe. Senators and knights usually belonged to rural tribes.
Aemilia Aniensis Arnensis Camillia Claudia Clustuminia
Collina* Cornelia Esquilina* Fabia Falerna Galeria
Horatia Lemonia Maecia Menenia Oufetina Palatina*
Papiria Poblilia Pollia Pomptina Pupinia Quirina
Romilia Sabatina Scaptia Sergia Stellatina Suburana*
Teretina Tromentina Velina Votininia Voturia  

* the four urban tribes of Rome itself, supposedly founded by King Servius Tullius.

Roman Rulers

Kings

There were seven semi-legendary kings of Rome traditionally listed as :
Romulus founder of Rome twin of Remus son of Ilia/Rhea Silvia, daughter of Numitor
Numa Pompilius c 715 1st king  
Tullus Hostilius      
Ancus Martius c 642    
Tarquinius Priscus c 616-78 Etruscan  
Servius Tullius 578-4    
Tarquinius Superbus 54-510 last king  

Horatius (Cocles) a hero

Emperors

Julio-Claudians
Augustus 27 BC-AD 14 Sole rule 0 BC Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus nephew of Julius Caesar Livia
Tiberius 14-7 Tiberius Claudius Nero son of Livia, adopted by Augustus  
Gaius (Caligula) 7-41 Gaius Caesar Augustus Germanicus son of Germanicus, grandson of Drusus  
Claudius 41-54 Tiberius Claudius Drusus Nero Germanicus son of Drusus, brother of Tiberius 1 Urgulania 2 Aelia Messalina 4 Agrippina
Nero 54-68 Originally Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus son of Agrippina, adopted by Claudius Poppaea

Year of Four Emperors 68-9
Galba 68-9 Servius Sulpicius Galba    
Otho 69 Marcus Salvius Otho    
Vitellius 69-70 Aulus Vitellius    

Flavians
Vespasian 69-79 Titus Flavius Vespasianus   Domitia
Titus 79-81 Titus Flavius Sabinus Vespasianus son of Vespasian  
Domitian 81-96 Titus Flavius Domitianus son of Vespasian  
Nerva 96-8 Marcus Cocceius Nerva    
Trajan 98-117 Marcus Ulpius Trajanus    
Hadrian 117-8 Publius Aelius Hadrianus Kinsman of Trajan  

Antonines
Antoninus Pius 18-61 Titus Aurelius Fulvius Antoninus Pius    
Marcus Aurelius 161-80 Marcus Annius Verus then M A Antoninus   Faustina
Lucius Verus 161-9 (with M.A.)      
Commodus 180-92 Lucius Aurelius Commodus Son of MA  
Pertinax 192-3 Publius Helvius Pertinax    
Didius Julianus 193 Marcus Didius Julianus    

Severans and rivals
Septimius Severus 193-211 Lucius Septimius Severus    
Clodius Albinus        
Pescennius Niger        
Caracalla 211-17 Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Son of Septimius Severus  
Geta 211-2 killed by C Publius Septimius Antoninius Geta Brother of Caracalla  
Macrinus 217-8      
Elagabalus (Heliogabalus ) 218-22 Varius Avitus Bassianus

Priest of sun god Elagabal

   
Severus Alexander 222-5   Cousin and adopted son of Elagabalus  
Maximinius ('Thrax') 225-8      
Pupienus 228      
Balbinius 228      
Gordian I 228 Marcus Antonius Gordianus    
Gordian II 228   Son of GI  
Gordian III 228-44 MA Gordianus Pius Son of GII  
Philip I ('The Arab') 244-9      
Philip II 244-9      
Uranius 248-5      
Pacatianus 248      
Jotapianus 249      
Decius 249-51 Caius Messius Quintus Trajanus Decius    
Herennius Etruscus 250-1      
Hostilianus 250-1      
Gallus 251      
Volusianus 251      
Aemilianus 251      
Valerian 251-60 Publius Licinius Valerianus    
Gallienus 251-68 Publius Licinius Gallienus Son of Valerian  
Macrianus 260      
Regalianus 261      
Aureolus 267-8      
Laelianus 268      
Marius 268      

‘Gallic Emperors'
Postumus 260-9    
Victorinus 269-71    
Tetricus 271-    

Claudius II ('Gothicus') 268-70      
Quintillus 270      
Aurelian 270-5 Lucius Domtius Aurelianus    
Domitian II ??      
Vaballathus 270-1      
Tacitus 275-6      
Florianus 276      
Probus 276-82 Marcus Aurelius Probus    
Saturninus 280      
Carus 282-      
Julianus 283      
Carinus 283-5      
Numerian 283-4      

The Tetrarchy
Diocletian (East) 284-305 abd Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus    
Maximian (Italy + Africa) 286-305 abd      
Constantius I Chlorus (Britain, Gaul + Spain) 305 (Caesar 293-305   Nephew of Claudius II Helena (St Helen)
Galerius (Illyricum + Danube) East after 305 293-11 (Caesar 293-305) Galerius Valerius Maximianus    
Carausius 287-93 Marcus Aurelius Carausius    
Allectus 293-6 (Britain)   Killed Carausius  
Achilles 296      
Flavius Severus 306-7      
Maximian Daia 310-      
Maxentius 307-12   Son of Maximian  
Alexander 308-11      
Licinius 308-24      

Constantines and rivals
Constantine I ('The Great') 306-337 Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus Son of Constantius Chlorus Fausta

Valens

314

     

Martinianus

332

     
Constantine II 337-40   Son of Constantine the Great  
Constans I 337-350 Flavius Julius Constans son of Constantine the Great  
Constantius II 337-61   Son of Constantine the Great  
Nepotianus 350      
Vetranio 350      
Magnentius 350-      
Claudius Silvanus 355      
Julian ('The Apostate') 361-6 Flavius Claudius Julianus    
Jovian -364      

Valentinians and rivals
Valentinian I 364-75     Justina?
Valens 364-78   Brother of Valentinian  
Procopius 365-6      
Gratian 375-93 Augustus Gratianus Son of Val I  
Valentinian II 375-92 (aged 4 at succession)   Son of Val I (1/2 bro of Gratian  

Magnus Maximus

393-

 

Usurper, killed Gratian

 

Flavius Victor

384-8

     

Eugenius

392-4

 

Frankish puppet emperor

 

Theodosians and rivals
Theodosius the Great 379-95   Son of Theodosius the Elder

Eastern Emperors

       
Arcadius 395-408   Son of Theodosius the Great  
Theodosius II 408-50   Son of Arcadius Eudoxia
Marcian 450-7      
Leo I 457-74      
Leo II 474   Grandson of Leo II Son of Zeno + Ariadne  
Zeno 474-491   Father of Leo II Ariadne, dau Leo I
Anastasius 491-518      
Glycerinus        
Justin I 518-27      
Justinian I 527-65 Flavius Petrus Sabbatius Justinianus Nephew of Justin Theodora
Justin II -578   Nephew of Justinian II Sophia, neice of Theodora
         

Western Emperors

       
Honorius 95-42 Flavius Honorius 2nd son of Theodosius the Great  
Marcus 406? (Britain)      
Gratian 407 (Britain)      
Constantine III 407-11      
Maximus 409-11      
Jovinus 411-12      
Constantius III 421 Flavius Constantius Placidia
John (Johannes) 423-5      
Valentinian III 425-55   Son of C III  
Petronius Maximus 455      
Avitus 455-6      
Majorian 457-61      
Libius Severus 461-5      
Anthemius 467-72      
Olybrius 472      
Julius Nepos 47-80      
Romulus Augustulus 475-6 Romulus Augustus Son of Orestes, a Pannonian  

Roman Religion

The native Roman gods or numina (sing. numen) had no face or mythology but were spiritual forces. The word ‘numinous’ is derived from them although ‘numen’ literally meant ‘a divinity’. Later Greek influence was very strong with the Greek pantheon being adopted by Rome and some of the numina were given a form, gender and name.

The Capitoline Triad

Jupiter (Jove) Dius Fidius

Optimus Maximus - best and greatest

J. Stator - the Stayer

J. Latiaris

-

king of gods

gave soldiers courage to fight

Latin Jupiter

Juno Juno Moneta - warnings

Juno Lucina

sacred geese
Minerva    

Gods

Name

Attributes  
Amphitritis?    
Aquilo North wind  
Bacchus Wine  
Bonus Eventus Good luck  
Castor and Pollux ‘Dioscuri’ twin sons of Leda and Jupiter
Cupid/Amor Love  
Faunus Flocks  
Hercules Musarum

Olivarius

   
Janus Beginnings  
Janus Patulcius Opening of doors  
Janus Clusivius Closing of doors  
Juventas    
Liber Pater Vine Greek Bacchus
Lucifer Light bringer (Venus)  
Mars war, agriculture  
Mercury Messenger Greek Hermes
Mithras Persian sun god popular with legions
Monoeceus Herakles  
Morpheus Sleep  
Neptune Sea  
Nodens Healing  
Orcus   Greek Hades
Pales Flocks and herds  
Palicus Sicilian god/hero  
Picus Woodpecker Mars of Picentum
Pilumnus Spearman  
Pluto/Dis Underworld  
Portunus Harbours  
Quirinus Quirinal hill identified with Mars
Saturn Agriculture wealth? Greek Cronus
Semo Sancus Dius Fidius Divine good faith  
Silvanus Uncultivated land  
Sol Indiges?    
Vediovis disappointments/

underworld

Roman, numinous
Vulcan smith Greek Hephaistos

Goddesses

Name

Attributes  
Ambrosia    
Anna Perenna   originally a numen
Aurora dawn  
Bona Dea fertility  
Ceres corn, food crops Italian/Roman
Cloacina purification  
Cybele mother goddess of Phrygia  
Diana hunting Greek Artemis
Disciplina    
Diva Angerona   knows Rome’s secret name
Eumachia patron of 'fullones' or clothmakers  
Flora flowers, spring  
Fortuna fortune Greek Tyche
Juno Lucita

Juno Sospita

childbirth, women  
Juturna/Juterna springs, streams native to Rome
Laia    
Latona   Greek Leto
Magna Mater/Cubaba Cybele earth goddess from Pessinus
Marica mother of Latinus, whose dau. Lavinia married Aeneas  
Minerva wisdom arts  
Mormolyce/Mormo cannibal queen who ate children used to threaten naughty children
Ops plenty wife of Saturn
Pietas loyalty, duty, family  
Pomona fruits  
Proserpina daughter of Ceres Greek Persephone
Sangaritis nymph  
Tellus earth, pre Magna Mater  
Terra    
Ulpicina childbirth  
Venus -

Venus Libitina -

-vegetable fertility, love

-extinction of life force

 
Vesta hearth numinous, served by six Vestal Virgins
Victoria victory  

Groups of Deities

Di Penates home, store cupboards altar in most homes
Penates Publici orig. belonged to the king, later State solvency  
Parcae fates  
Manes ‘good ones’ spirits of dead  
Lares Permarini protected sea voyagers  
Lares Praestites watched over state + public  
Lares familiares watched over home + family altar in most homes

winds N Septentrio

NW Corus

Roman Names

Male

A male citizen of the Roman Empire had at least three names: the praenomen or personal name, only used by family members, the nomen gentilicum or surname to indicate to which gens or family group he belonged and the cognomen or nickname which distinguished between different members of the family who had the same two first names. If the gens was a particularly large one, different branches tended to use an inherited cognomen for identification so their family members might require additional cognomina to identify them. If a man was successful in his career, a cognomen recognising this might be added. This was especially common in military life.

The full name of a male Roman citizen consisted of six elements, the praenomen, the nomen gentilicum, the patronymic or filiation (genitive case of the father’s praenomen and filius - son) which of the 35 tribes or voting districts he belonged to (often abbreviated: Fab - Fabia, Cl/Cla - Claudius), the cognomen and lastly the origo - place of origin, or domus - domicile. For the ruling classes, it was not usually necessary to use the full form but for lower ranking people such as soldiers citizenship was very important and the full nomenclature occurs regularly. Until the C1st BC, only the first four were needed for official purposes and the first two for daily use but cognomina became far more common as Roman citizenship spread and many people took similar names.

Under the Republic and the Early Empire the tria nomina, or three names, system was important as it distinguished between the citizen, the non-citizen or peregrinus, and the slave who had only one name. Non-citizens gaining citizenship, such as discharged auxiliary soldiers, usually took the nomen of the current Emperor. By the time of Emperor Caracalla (AD 211-17) citizenship was granted to virtually the whole Empire and the tria nomina lost their distinction. Men of recent foreign origin had increasingly high positions and no longer bothered to take a fully Roman name.

Female

Originally women used the name of the gens preceded by a cognomen They rarely had a praenomen even if they were citizens, just using their nomen and filiation. As this meant that all female members of a family would have the same name, the woman's cognomen was also used familiarly. By the middle of the Republican period, just the name of the gens was used. In early Imperial times, personal names were again in fashion, although they were now placed after the nomen. Later forms included feminine versions of the father’s nomen and cognomen, or the father’s nomen followed by that of the mother.

Slaves

Officially, they did not have their own names but used their owner’s praenomen with the suffix ‘por’ from puer, ‘boy’ (Marcipor, Publipor, Quintipor). Later it was fashionable to give them Greek names, often followed by the genitive form of the owner’s name. A freed slave generally took his former master’s praenomen and nomen with his own personal name as a cognomen but some chose their own praenomina.

Pronunciation

In a two syllable word, the first is stressed. When there are more than two, stress the second to last syllable. If the last two syllables are both vowels, stress the one before them.

Letters

Sounds

Exceptions

a as in father  
e as in ‘they’

et, est, sed, as bet -em stem

i like ‘ee’ in ‘seen’

id, in like tin

o as in ‘go’  
u like ‘oo’

us, um, ut as puss, room, put

ae like ‘eye’  
au like ‘ow’  
oe like ‘oy’  
c as in ‘car’  
ch as in ‘choral’  
g as in ‘got’  
gu (after ‘n’) like ‘gw’  
i (as initial letter + vowel) like ‘y’  
qu like ‘kw’  
s as in goose  
t as in top  
v like ‘w’  
x like ‘ks’  
j, w, y don’t exist  

Pompeii

The following examples of Roman names are those of people living in the towns of Pompeii and Herculaneum which were destroyed by the eruption of Vesuvius in AD 79.
Amulius Faventinus Tiburs C. Cornelius Rufus C. Egnatius Postumus
C. Norbanus Sorex Caius Cuspius Pansa Cn. Melissaeius Aper
Gneo Poppaeo Abito L. Albucius Celsus L. Caecilius Phoebus
L.Sepunius Sandilianus M. Herennius Epidianus M. Nigilius Vaccula
M. Nonius Balbus M. Obellius Firmus M. Staius Rufus
Titus Suedius Clemens    
A. Cornelius C. Uulius Caecilius Iucundus
Caius Occius Cn. Cornelius Iulia Felix (wife of OQ)
L.. Sextilius Loreius Tibertinus Lucius Caesius
Lucius Niraemius M. Lucretius M. Porcius
Marcus Tullius Numerius Trebius Octavius Quarto
Oppius Campanus P. Aninius Q. Valquo
Quintus Valgus Sacerdus Amandus Vesonius Primus
Vibius Popidius    

Praenomen

This was the first of the three names of a Roman citizen. It was the personal name used only by members of the family. Praenomina were only borne by men and there were only about twenty altogether with only a dozen common ones. These were often written as initials or abbreviations (shown in brackets). Brothers were often given the same praenomen but would have a different cognomen.

Amulius Appius (App)# Aulus (A) Caius (C) Cnaeus (Cn) Decimus (D)
Domitius Flavus Gaius (G) Galerius Gnaeus Gneo
Julius Kaeso Lucius (L) Mamercus* Manius (M’) Marcus (M)
Numerius (N) Olus~ Oppius Publius (P) Quintus (Q) Servius (Ser)
Sextus (Sex) Spurius (Sp) Tiberius (Ti) Titus (T) Vibius  

* only used by the Aemilia Lepidii

# only used by the Claudii

~ rare form of Aulus

Sometimes a certain patrician gens or clan would only use certain praenomina so somebody with a different one was not likely to be a genuine member of a patrician family but may have been descended from a freed slave who had taken the family nomen.
Cornelii Gnaeus, Lucius, Publius
Julii Gaius, Lucius, Sextus
Licinii Lucius, Marcus, Publius
Pompeii Gnaeus, Quintus, Sextus
Servilii Gnaeus, Quintus

Nomen (Family Name)

This was also called the ‘nomen gentilicum’ or clan name and was the second of the three names of a Roman citizen. It took the feminine case - gens Julia, gens Claudia - and the plurals would be Julii, Claudii. It is sometimes difficult to tell from sources whether a name is a nomen or cognomen so it is possible that some of these are in the wrong list but every effort has been made to be accurate. Feminine forms took an ‘-a’ instead of the masculine ‘-us’ ending.
Accius? Acilius Aebutius Aedinius Aegidius Aelia/Aelius
Aeresius Aetius Afrania/Afranius Agrius Albanus Albia/Albius
Albinovanus Albucius Alfenus Allectus Alleius Allia/Allius
Amatius Ammianus Ancharius Annaeus Annia/Annius Anninius
Antistius Antius Antonia/Antonius Antoninus Appuleius Arius
Arminia/Arminius Arminus Arria/Arrius Arruntia/Arruntius Artorius Asinius
Ateius Atia/Atius Atilius Atrius Attia/Attius Aufidius
Aulus Aurunceius Ausonius Autronius Avidius Axius
Babudius Baebius Baenius Baibius Barrius Bebius
Belaeus Bellienus Blandius Bruccius Bruttius Caelius
Caeparius Caerellius Caesennius Caesius Calatoria/Calatorius Caledonius
Calidius Calpurnia/Calpurnius Calventius Calvinus Calvisius Cammius
Canuleius Caprenius Caria/Carius Caristanius Caristianus Cassia/Cassius
Cassianus Catiotus Cecia/Cecius Celatus Celerinius Centennius
Cicereius Cipius Clitumna/Clitumnus Cloatius Clovius Cluentius
Cluntius Cnisius Cocceius Cominius Comnena/Comnenus Conconius
Congaonius Congonius Cordius Cornificius Cosconius Cossutia/Cossutius
Crispus Curatia/Curatius Curius Curtius Decianus Decimius
Decumius Delluius Desidenius Desticius Dexius Didius
Dillius Dossenius Drusa/Drusus Duccius Duilis Duilius
Duronius Egnatius Ennius Epidius Equitia/Equitius Fabricius
Fadia Fadius Falerius Famulus Fannius Fausta/Faustus
Faventinus Favonius Fenius Festinius Flaccus Flaminius
Flavinius Flavonius Floridius Florius Floronius Fonteia/Fonteius
Francus Fufius Fulcinia/Fulcinius Fulvia/Fulvius Fundanus Fundilius
Funisulanus Gabinius Galenus Galerius Galla/Gallus Gargilius
Gavius Gellius Grania/Granius Gratia/Gratus Gratidia/Gratidius Haterius
Helvetius Helvia/Helvius Herennius Herius Herminius Hispala/Hispalus
Horatia/Horatius Hortensia/Hortensius Hosidius Hostilius Inventius Iulus
Javolena/Javolenus Jucundius Junia/Junius Justus Juventius Laberius
Labienus Laelius Laetonius Lafrenius Lampronius Lepidus
Liburnius Licinia/Licinius Ligustinius Lollia/Lollius Longinus Longus
Loreius Lucceia/Lucceius Lucia/Lucius Lucilia/Lucilius Lusius Lutatius
Maccius Macrinus Maecilius Maelius Maenia/Maenius Magius
Maianius Mallius Mamilius Manilius Manlius Mannius
Marcia/Marcius Maria/Marius Martiannius Matia/Matius Maximius Melissaeius
Memmius Messienus Metilius Milonius Minucius Minutius
Modius Mucia/Mucius Mummius Munatius Munius Murcius
Murrius Naevius Nasennius Nemetorius Nepius Neratius
Nigidius Nigidullus Nigilius Nigrius Nipius Nonius
Norbanus Novius Numerius Occius Oclatinius Octavia/Octavius
Olcinius Oppius Opsius Oranius Orestilla Ostorius
Otacilius Papellius Papius Paquius Peltrasius Perpennia/Perpennius
Perquitienus Pescennius Petellius Petilius Petillius Petreia/Petreius
Petronia/Petronius Piscius Pisentius Pituanius Placida/Placidus Platorius
Plautia/Plautius Plinius Plotius Poenius Pollia/Pollius Polus
Pomponia/Pomponius Pomptinus Pontidius Pontius Popidius Popillia/Popillius
Poppaedius Portia/Portius Praesentius Publicius Pupius Quettius
Quinctilia/Quinctilius Quintilia/Quintilius Quintius Quirinius Rabirius Roscius
Rufia/Rufius Rufina/Rufinus Rufrius Rufus Rusonia/Rusonius Sabidius
Sabucius Sacerdus Sallustius Salonia/Salonius Salvius Saufeius
Scribonia/Scribonius Secundinius Secundius Seius Senecianus Senicianus
Sennius Sentius Septimius Sepunius Sepurcius Sertoria/Sertorius
Sestius Sextilius Sextius Sidonius Silia/Silius Silvianus
Sittius Socellius Sornatius Sosia/Sosius Spurius Staius
Statius Statlilius Stertinius Stlaccius Suedius Sylvia/Sylvius
Tadia/Tadius Talmudius Tanicius Teideius Terentia Terentius
Tertinius Tetius Titia/Titius Titinia/Titinius Tituleius Tragus
Trebatius Trebellius Tremellius Tuccius Tullia/Tullius Turrianus
Ulpianus Ulpius Umbrenius Urgulania/Urgulanius Uulius Vagiennius
Vagionius Vagnius Valerianus Valerius Valgus Vargunteius
Varia/Varius Vassinus Vatinius Vedius Velva/Velvus Venidius
Veranius Verecundius Vergilius Verus Vesnius Vesuius
Vesuvius Vettienus? Vibenius Vibidius Victricius Vidacilius
Viducius Vinicius Vipsania/Vipsanius Viridius Virius Vitellia/Vitellius
Vitruvius Vitulasius Volcatius Volumni/Volumnius Volusenus Volusia/Volusius

Patricians

These families had been important citizens even before Rome had kings and retained their prestige under the Republic despite the increase in the numbers of new noble families raised above plebeian level by producing a consul. Some offices, such as certain priesthoods or senatorial positions, could only be held by patricians.
Aemilia/Aemilius Atilia/Atilius Aurelia/Aurelius Caecilia/Caecilius Camilla/Camillus Claudia/Claudius
Clodia/Clodius Cornelia/Cornelius Domitia/Domitius Fabia/Fabius Flavia/Flavius Furia/Furius
Livia/Livius Manlia/Manlius Papinia/Papinius Papiria/Papirius Pinarus Pompeia/Pompeius?
Porcia/Porcius? Postumia/Postumius Rutilia/Rutilius Sempronia/Sempronius Segia/Sergius Servilia/Servilius
Sulpicia/Sulpicius Valeria/Valerius Vettia/Vettius?      

Female

The ‘-ina’ and ‘-illa’ endings could added to the nomen to distinguish between an elder and younger daughter or perhaps an aunt and niece.
Agrippinilla Anicilla Augustinilla Camillina Cinnilla Claudilla
Crispina Drusilla Faustilla Faustina Flavilla Germanilla
Germinilla Ingenuilla Julilla Junilla Livila Livilla
Magnilla Marcella Marcellina Marcilla Medullina Messalina
Orestilla Petronilla Priscilla Pudentilla Quartilla Rufilla
Sabinilla Servililla Turianilla Urgulanilla    

Numbers

Another way of distinguishing between two members of the family with the same name was to use numbers as cognomina.
1 Primus, Primitivus Prima, Primitiva, Una
2 Secundus Secunda
3 Tertius Tertia
4 Quartius, Quartilius Quartia, Quartilla
5 Quintus, Quintilius Quinta, Quintilla
6 Sextus Sexta
7 Septimus Septima
8 Octavius Octavia
9 Nonus Nona
10 Decimus Decima
11 Undecimus Undecima
20 Vicesimus Vicesima

Cognomen (Nickname)

This was the third of the three names of a Roman citizen. They could be quite solemn and reflect public success but were often witty and even insulting. They could be passed on to a man’s sons and daughters. If a man had been adopted, he would take the name of his adoptive father and a cognomen derived from the gens he had been born into. The Emperor Augustus was born an Octavius and took the cognomen Octavianus when he was adopted by his uncle, Gaius Julius Caesar. Freed slaves took the praenomen and nomen of their former master with their own original name as a cognomen.

Male

Abercius Abito Acacius Acaunus Acilianus Adauctus
Adepphius Adjutor Adranos Adventus Aeacus Aebutus
Aelianus Aemilianus Afer Agapitus Agatopus Agelastus
Agorix Agricola Agrippa Agustalis Ahala Albinius
Albinus Albucius Alethius Aloysius Aluredes Alypius
Amandus Amantius Ambrosius Ammausius Ammianus Amor
Amphion Ampliatus Ancus Angelus Annaeus Antistianus
Antyllus Anullinus Apelles Apellinus Aper Apollonarius
Aponius Apuleius Aquila Aquilius Aquillius Aratus
Arcavius Archarius Arius Armiger Arpagius Arrianus
Arruntius Aruns Arvina Asclepiodotus Asellio Asiagenes
Asina Asprenas Asprenus Assanius Athanasius Audaios
Audens Augendus Augurinus Augurius Augustales Augustalis
Augustanus Augustus Auila Aurelianus Aurelius Ausonius
Auspex Auxentius Auxientius Auxilius Avitus Balbillus
Balbus Balduinus Bambalio Bamballio Banquerius Barbatus
Baro Bartolomaeus Bassus Bato Belenus Belisarius
Bellator Belletor Bellicus Bellus Benigius Bestia
Betto Bibaculus Bibulus Bitucus Blaesus Blandus
Blassianus Bodenius Bolanus Bonosus Bonus Bradua
Bromidus Bruccius Brucetus Bruscius Brutus Bubo
Bulla Burcanius Burrus Buteo Caecilianus Caecina
Caecus Caelestis Caelestius Caelianus Caelinus Caepio
Caerellius Caesar Caesoninus Calacicus Calatinus Caldus
Calenus Calerus Caletus Caligula Callisunus Calogerus
Calpornius Calpurnianus Calpurnis Calvinus Calvus Camerius
Camillus Campanus Candidus Canidius Canio Canisius
Cantaber Capito Capiton Caprarius Caracturus Carantus
Carausius Carbo Carisius Carius Carnifex Casca
Cassianus Castorius Castus Catianus Catilina Cato
Catonius Catsuminianus Catullus Catulus Catus Cecilianus
Celer Celsus Cenaeus Cencius Censorinus Censorius
Centumalus Cerialis Cervianus Cervidus Cethegus Chilo
Christianus Cicero Cico Cimber Cinna Cinnianus
Cita Cittinus Civilis Clarus Classicianus Classicus
Claudianus Clemens Clement Clodian Clodianus Cocceianus
Cogitatus Colias Collatinus Columbanus Columella Comes
Comitianus Comitinus Commidius Commidus Commius Compitalicius
Concessus Condrausisius Congrio Consrotius Constans Constantius
Contumeliorus Corbulo Cordus Cornix Cornutus Corvinus
Cotentinus Cotta Crassus Cremutius Crescentius Cresces
Crispian Crispin Crispus Crito Crotilo Cucuphas
Culleolus Cumanus Cunctator delayer Cunobarrus Cupitus Curio
Cyprianus Cyprias Dacian Dagwalus Dama Damasippus
Dannicus Dardanius Dardanus Decianus Decmitius Decmus
Decuminus Delicius Desideratus Dexion Dexippus Didacus
Dignus Dio Diocletianus Dioscourides Disertus Docilinus
Docilis Dolabella Dominicus Domitianus Donatianus Donatus
Donicus Drusillus Drusus Dubitatus Durio Durus
Duvianus Eborius Eburnus Ecdicius Eclectus Egbutius
Egnatius Elerius Eleutherius Eliphias Elvorix Emeritus
Encratis Ennecus Ennius Eonus Epidianus Epimachus
Epitynchianus Epolonius Erasinus Esdras Eudomius Eugenius
Eugenus Eumenius Eunapius Eustacius Eutherius Evodius
Excingus Exsupereus Exuperantius Exupertus Fabianus Fabillus
Facilis Fadus Fagus Falco Falconius Falx
Famia Familiaris Fastidius Faustillus Faustinianus Faustinius
Faustus Felicissimus Felissimus Felix Ferentinus Ferreolius
Festus Fidelis Figulus Fimbria Fimus Firminus
Firmus Flaccus Flavian Flavianus Flavillus Flavinus
Florens Florianus Forianus Fortunatus Fraucus Fredisius
Frigidian Frontalis Frontinus Fronto Fructosis Frugi
Frugius Frumentius Fullofaudes Fulvianus Funisulanus Furius
Fuscinus Fuscus Gaianus Gaius Gala Galarius
Galerus Gallus Galvisius Garilianus Gaurus Gavros
Gavrus Gelasius Gellius Gemellus Geminianus Generidus
Genesius Genialis Gerardus Gessius Geta Getha
Glabrio Glaucia Globulus Gluvias Glycia Gordianus
Gordio Gorgonius Gracchus Gracilis Gratidianus Grumio
Gualtierus Habitus Hadrianus Hardalio Haterius Helvius
Herculius Herenus Herma Hermina Hesychius Hiberus
Hieronimianus Hilario Hilaris Hilarius Hirpinius Hirrus
Homullus Horatius Hortensius Hosidius Humilis Hyacinthus
Hybrida Iacomus Igennus Indaletius Indus Ingenuus
Ingenvinus Iocundus Isatis Italicus Ivimarus Januarius
Javolenus Jovinianus Jovinus Jovius Juba Julian
Julianus Juncinus Juncus Junianus Justianus Justin
Justinianus Justinus Justus Juvenalis Kaeso Lactantius
Laeca Laenas Laetinianus Laevinus Larcius Lartius
Lateranus Latinus Laurentius Leddicus Lentullus Lentulus
Leon Lepidus Lepontus Leptis Libanius Liberalis
Libo Licinianus Licinius Ligur Ligustinus Limetanus
Linus Litorius Littera Litumarus Livianus Livigenus
Lovernianus Lovernius Lucan Lucanus Lucianus Lucilianus
Lucretinaus Lucretius Luctacus Lucullus Lunaris Luonercus
Lupercus Lupicinus Lupinus Lupus Lurco Lurio
Lutherius Lutorius Maccalus Macrinus Macro Macrobius
Mactator Maecenas Maecius Magnus Magunnus Maius
Major Malchus Mallus Maltinus Maminianus Mancinus
Manlius Mansuetus Marcellinus Marcellus Marcialis Marcipor
Margarita Marinianus Marinus Maritimus Marius Maro
Marsicus Marsus Marsyas Martial Martialis Martianus
Martinus Martius Marullinus Marullus Maternus Matho
Maursus Maximian Maximinius Maximus Medullinus Megellus
Melissus Melitus Mellitus Melus Meminius Memmius
Memor Mercator Mercurialis Mercurinus Merula Messala
Messor Metellus Metilius Metunus Micianus Mico
Milonius Minervalis Minianus Minicianus Moderatus Molacus
Momus Montanus Montaus Mordanticus Mucianus Muco
Muncius Murena Mus Musa Musicus Mutilus
Mutius Nabor Naevius Namatianus Narcissus Nasica
Naso Natalinus Natalis Naucratius Nazarius Nectaridus
Nelius Nemesianus Nemnogenus Neneus Nennius Nepos
Nero Nertomarus Nerva Nicasius Nigellus Niger
Nigidius Nigrinus Niraemius Nolus Nonius Noster
Novatian Novellius Numerianus Numonis Oceanus Octavian
Octavianus Octobrianus Olennius Olympicus Opimius Opis
Optatus Orientalis Orientius Orissus Orosius Ostorianus
Pacatianus Pachomius Pacuvianus Paenula Paetinus Paetus
Palicamus Pamphilius Panaetius Pansa Pantenus Pantera
Panthera Papinian Papus Paratus Parnesius Pascentius
Paterculus Patiens Paulinus Paullus Pavo Pennus
Peregrinus Perennis Perpenna Perperna Pertacus Pertinax
Petasius Petreius Petronax Petrus Philippus Pictor
Pilatus Pilus Pinarius Piso Pius Placidus
Planta Plautis Plautius Plautus Pleminius Pollienus
Pollio Polus Polybius Pompolussa Pomponius Poplicola
Porcus Porphyrius Postumianus Postumus Potitus Praetextus
Prilidianus Primanus Primulus Primus Prisca Priscillian
Priscillianus Priscus Processus Proceus Proculus Procyon
Profuterius Propertius Propinquus Protacius Protus Proxsimus
Publianus Publicola Pudens Pudentius Pulcher Pulcherius
Pullus Pusinnus Pustula Quartinus Quarto Quatruus
Quentin Quietus Quintilianus Quintilius Quintillius Quintillus
Quiriac Quiricus Quirinalis Ramio Ramirus Ravilla
Reburrus Receptus Rectus Regillus Reginus Regulus
Remigius Remus Renatus Respectus Restitutus Rex
Ripanus Rogelius Romanus Romulianus Romulus Roscius
Rufinianus Rufinus Rufrius Rufus Rullus Ruricius
Ruso Rusticus Rutilianus Sabellius Sabinianus Sabinus
Saenus Salinator Salonianus Saloninus Salonius Salvianus
Salvius Sanctus Sandilianus Sanga Sarimarcus Sarrius
Saturninus Saunio Scaevola Scapula Scaro Scato
Scaurus Schlerus Scipio Scribonianus Scrofa Secundus
Segestes Sejanus Sellic Seneca Senecianus Senecio
Senilis Senna Senopianus Sentius Septimianus Sergius
Seronatus Serranus Sertorius Servanus Servatius Servilius
Seuso Severinus Sevso Siculus Sidonius Sigilis
Silanus Silius Silo Silus Silvanus Similis
Simo Simplex Simplicianus Siricus Sisenna Sisinnius
Sita Sollemnis Sorex Sorio Sosius Soterichus
Sotericus Soulinus Spartacus Spendius Speratus Statius
Stichus Strabo Sudrenus Suilius Sulinus Sulla
Sulpicius Super Superbus Superstes Sura Surinus
Surius Surus Sylla Sylvian Sylvius Symmachus
Symphorian Sympronian Synistor Synnodus Tacitus Taenarus
Tancinus Tanicus Tarquinius Tarsicius Tasius Tatian
Tatianus Taurinus Taurus Telesinus Terenteianus Tertius
Tertullian Tertullianus Tertulus Tetricus Tetullianus Thrasea
Tiberillus Tiberinus Tibullus Tiburs Tiburtius Ticinus
Titianus Titillus Torquatus Toutius Traianus Traillus
Tranio Tranquillus Trebellius Trebius Trebonianus Trebonius
Tremerus Tremorinus Trenico Trenus Triarius Trifer
Triferus Trimalchio Trogus Trupo Tuccianus Tuditanus
Tullius Tullus Turibius Turpilianus Turpilinus Turpilius
Tuticanus Tutor Typhoeus Tyranus Ulfila Ulixes
Ulpian Umbonius Ursacius Ursinus Ursus Uticensis
Vala Valens Valentinian Valentinus Valerianus Valgus
Varialus Varro Varus Vatia Vedrix Vegetius
Velus Venator Ventor Venustinius Vepgenus Veranius
Verecundus Vergilius Verinus Verres Verrucosis Verullus
Verulus Verus Vespasianus Vestinus Vestorius Vetranio
Vettonianus Veturius Vibennis Vibius Vibullius Victor
Victricius Vincentius Vindex Vinicianus Vipsanius Virginius
Viridio Virilis Virnius Vitalinus Vitalion Vitalis
Vitoricus Vitulus Vitus Vocula Volturcius Volusenus
Volusianus Vonones Vopiscus Voteporix Vulso Zosimus

Some cognomina commemorated a successful military campaign against a particular country or area. They were usually taken by the commanding officer. They could also signify fondness for or connections with a particular area.

Male
Africanus Allobrogicus Asiaticus Atticus Balearicus Briganticus
Britannicus Creticu Cyriacus? Dalmaticus Gaetulicus? Gallicus
Germanicus Glycoricus? Helveticus Isauricus Macedonicus Numidicus
Spartacus          

Female
Balearica Cretica Dalmatica      

Female

This was often a feminine form of the father's but by the C1st BC, many women had their own cognomen (such as 'Pulchra', beautiful or 'Parva', small) or one describing their position in the family: ‘Major’, the Elder or ‘Minor’, the Younger. On marriage, they took the genitive form of their husband’s name e.g. ‘Antonia Pompeii’ - Antonia, wife of Pompeius.
Aeliana Aeterna Afrania Afrodisia Agneta Agrippina
Aia Amabilis Amalthea Amanda Apicata Apphia
Apronia Apulia Arruntia Astia Atia Augusta
Aventina Avita Blatta Byrria Caepionis Caesonia
Calva Camilla Capitolina Carina Casta Cata
Catia Caula Censorina Cherusca Christiana Cinna
Clara Cloelia Columella Concessa Cordelia Cosconia
Cotta Coventina Crescentia Crispina Cristina Cypria
Decima Desiderata Dinysia Dolichena Domna Dulcilla
Emelia Emerentiana Encratia Ennia Erigena Estella
Eubala Eubia Eutropia Fausta Faustina Faustinia
Fecenia Felicia Felicula Fesonia Flora Fontia
Fortunata Gaea Gaetulica Galla Geneura Gloria
Gnaea Graecina Grata Hilara Hilaria Honora
Hypatia Iana Idonea Indara Ingenua Innocentia
Januaria Jovina Juliana Julilla Julitta Juncina
Justa Justina Lanilla Larina Laureola Laurina
Lavinia Lepida Lesbia Licinian Livigena Longina
Luciana Lucilla Lucina Lupula Lutatia Macrina
Maesa Maia Mallea Mamaea Mamma Mammiola
Mansueta Mariana Marina Martia Martina Martiola
Matrona Maxilla Maxima Maximilla Messalina Messina
Metella Metiliana Milvia Myrtilla Naissa Narcissa
Natalia Nobilioris Numantina Occia Ocresia Olivia
Oriuna Pacata Palla Panthea Pantheria Pascentia
Paulla Peregrina Petraea Phrygia Pinta Placida
Planasia Plancina Plautia Plotina Pluma Pompeia
Poppaea Porcella Postimia Potamiaena Praxedes Prenestina
Priscilla Procilla Procula Pulchra Pussitta Regina
Restita Rhea Ria Romana Sabina Sabrina
Sacrata Salonia Salviena Sapientia Saturnia Saturnina
Scaura Scipionis Secunda Selene Selina Serena
Severa Severiana Silana Silicia Silvia Simplicia
Sophrona Sosia Sulpicia Tacita Tarpeia Tebetta
Teracina Tertia Tertulla Thena Tiberia Titullinia
Trifosa Tristonia Tuomina Ulidia Una Ursula
Utica Vacia Vecchia Velva Velvinna Vernico
Veronica Viatrix Vibidia Victoria Victorina Vilbia
Vinicia Virgilia Virginia Viventia Volumnia Xiphilina
Zonara          

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