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The Celts

History

The Celts (Greek 'Keltoi') were an Indo-European people originating in the Alps. Their first known territory was in Central Europe around 1200 BC in the upper Danube, the Alps and parts of France and southern Germany. The Celtic culture spread from its heartland around the Rhine and Danube, reaching Spain and Portugal in the C6th BC and dominating central and western Europe as well as Galatia in modern Turkey from the C5th BC onwards. In the next three centuries, they also reached Britain, northern Italy, Greece, the Balkans and Asia Minor. From discoveries of Chinese silk and items of Greek and Italian workmanship in their burials, it is clear that the Celts had a wide network of commercial contacts. Their leaders lived in hill-forts and made many raids on the Mediterranean lands, attacking Rome in 390 BC. The Celtic Iron Age is generally divided into two periods, the Hallstadt (C9th to 5th BC) and La Tène (after 450 BC), named after archaeological sites in Austria and Switzerland. Their characteristic style of decoration, ‘Celtic Art’, spread throughout western and central Europe including the British Isles, where it was still being used by the time of the illuminated gospels in the early Middle Ages. They also produced iron which gave them an advantage over those peoples who had only bronze weapons and tools.

Under the influences of both overcrowding (Milan was traditionally founded by the nephew of a Celtic king banished to alleviate this problem) and the rapid extension of the Roman Empire, migration continued. Control of Celtic lands, even the kingdom of Galatia, passed to the Romans as their Empire spread beyond Italy. The Celtic peoples became incorporated into it with the Mediterranean area of Gaul or Gallia (modern France), becoming a Roman province by the end of the C2nd BC. In Britain, the Belgae, a people of mixed Germanic and Celtic stock, became partially Romanized in the century between the first Roman invasion under Julius Caesar in 54 BC and the Roman conquest of AD 43.

They now mostly inhabit the Western seaboard of the British Isles, with traces of their languages remaining in Manx, Cornish, Breton and English as well as Scottish and Irish Gaelic and Welsh. They were recognised and described as possessing wealth, skills and culture by Ancient authors but never wrote down any of their laws, customs or beliefs. The oral tradition of storytelling was very strong, however, and survived particularly well in Ireland which was never part of the Roman Empire.

Geoffrey of Monmouth's Kings of Britain

These are semi-legendary kings of whom some can be identified with historical figures.

Name

Reign

Family

Spouse

Brutus 23 yrs    
Locrinus 10 yrs Son of Brutus Gwendolen
Gwendolen 15 yrs Widow of Locrinus  
Maddan 40 yrs Son of L + G  
Mempricius 20 yrs Son of Mempricius  
Ebraucus 39 yrs Son of Maddan 20 wives
Brutus Greenshield 12 yrs Son of Ebraucus  
Leil 25 years Son of Brutus G  
Rud Hud Hudibras 39 yrs Son of Leil  
Bladud 20 yrs Son of RHH  
Leir (King Lear) 60 yrs Son of Bladud  
Cordelia 5 yrs Daughter of Leir  
Marganus I + Cunedagius 2 yrs jointly then C 33 yrs Sons of Goneril + Regan  
Rivallo   Son of Cunedagius  
Gurgustius   Son of Rivallo  
Sisillius I      
Jago   Nephew of G  
Kimarcus   Son of Sisillius I  
Gorboduc     Judon

Ferrex + Porrex

Disputed succession

Sons of Gorboduc

 
Civil war, 5 unnamed kings      
Dunvallo Molmutius 40 yrs Son of Cloten, King of Cornwall  
Belinus Fought bro, Brennius Son of DM  
Gurguit Barbtruc   Son of Belinus  
Guithelin     Marcia
Marcia   Widow of Guithelin  
Sisillius II   Son of G + M  
Kinarius   Son of S II  
Danius   Bro of Kinarius  
Morvidus   Illeg son of Danius  
Gorbonianus   Eldest son of M  
Archgallo   Bro of Gorbonianus  
Elidurus 5 yrs Bro of Archgallo  
Archgallo 10 yrs Crown restored by E    
Elidurus Dep by 2 youngest bros    
Ingenius + Peredurus 7 yrs I died, P alone Sons of Morvidus  
Elidurus Restored    
?   Son of Gorbonianus  
Marganus II   Son of Archgallo  
Enniaunus 6 yrs dep Bro of M II  
Idvallo   Son of Ingenius  
Runo   Son of Peredurus  
Gerennus   Son of Elidurus  
Catellus   Son of Gerennus  
Millus      
Porrex      
Cherin      
Fulgenius   Son of Cherin  
Edadus   Bro of Fulgenius  
Andragius   Bro of Edadus  
Urianus   Son of Andragius  
Eliud      
Cledaucus      
Clotenus      
Gurgintius      
Merianus      
Bledudo      
Cap      
Oenus      
Sisillius III      
Beldgabred      
Archmail   Bro of Beldgabred  
Eldol      
Redon      
Redechius      
Samuil      
Penessil      
Pir      
Capoir      
Digueillis   Son of Capoir  
Heli 40 yrs Son of D  
Lud   Son of Heli  
Cassivelaunu(s) (hist Caswallon) C 55 BC Bro of Lud  
Tenvantius (hist Tasciovanus)   Son of Lud  
Cymbeline (hist Cunobelinus) 10 yrs + Son of Tenvantius  
Guiderius   Son of Cymbeline  
Arviragus   Bro of G  
Marius   Son of A  
Coilus   Son of M  
Lucius - AD 156 Son of Coilus  

Interregnum

C 150 yrs

   
Asclepiodotus Elected by the people Duke of Cornwall  
Coel 'Old King Cole' (hist Coel Hen Godhebog) Killed A Duke of Kaecolim (Colchester)  
Constantius Equated with Roman Emperor C I   Helen, daughter of Coel
Constantine I RE C the Great Son of Constantius  
Octavius Usurper Duke of the Gewissei  
Trahern   Bro of Coel  
Octavius Regained throne    
Maximianus   Son of Ioelinus, son of Coel Dau of Octavius
Gracianus   Freedman, seized power when M died  
Constantine II Invited to be king Bro of Aldroenus king of Brittany  
Constans   Son of C II  
Vortigern (hist) Usurped    
Vortimer   Son of Vortigern  
Vortigern Restored    
Aurelius Ambrosius Dep V Son of C II  
Uther Pendragon   Bro of AA  
Arthur D 542 Son of Uther  
Constantine III   A's cousin; Son of Cador, Duke of Cornwall  
Aurelius Conanus 3 yrs Nephew of C III  
Vortiporius      
Malgo (hist K Maelgwn Gwynedd) Died c 550    
Keredic      
3 unnamed kings      
Cadvan (hist Cadfan ab Iago of Gwynedd) 616-c25    
Cadwallo (hist Cadwallon) C 625-33

Geoffrey says 48 yrs

Son of Cadvan  
Cadwallader (hist Cadwaladr Fendigaid) 654-64 Son of Cadwallon  

 Kings of the Catuvellauni
Cassivelaunus Fl 55-4 BC    
Andocomius   Son of C  
Tasciovanus (Tehvant) D cAD 13    
Cunobelinus D cAD 40 Son of T 1 Silurian princess 2 Cartimandua, queen of the Brigantes
Togodumnus      
Caratacus      
Adminius      
2 others (Tacitus)      
Guiderius (Guidgen)      
Belinus      
Lou Hen      
Aballacos      
Canis Scapulatis      
Eugen      
Eudelin   bro of E  
Decianus      
Brictogenius     Dobunni woman
Eliud      
Dubu      
Outigern     Decanti woman
Amguerit      
Oudecant      
Docilis      
Ritigern      
Ceionius      
Iumetel      
Tacitus (Tegid)      
Gratus      
Paternus (Padarn Beisrudd)      
Urbanus      
Eternus (Edeyrn      
Telpuill      
Cunedda Gwledig     Gwawi
Tehvant (Tasciovanus)      
Coel Hen      
Gwawi wife of CG      

Celtic Religion

Many deities seem to have been associated with aspects of nature and worshipped in sacred groves. Some appear in all Celtic areas while others have purely local significance. A large number of minor gods and goddesses are mentioned in inscriptions and sculptures but Lugh, Epona and Cernunnos were among the most important. The Celtic oral tradition meant that the myths and legends were not written down until after the Christian church had been established in Britain so the versions that exist were subject to its influence. The deities were changed into fairies and their powers into magic while the great festivals were included in the Christian calendar.

The Druids or priests were more important than the kings in Celtic society and their decisions were law. Even the king could not speak first. Their training took some years and there were special colleges in which philosophy, law, poems and stories were learnt by rote which preserved the mystery of Druidic doctrines. They were credited with supernatural powers of healing and prophecy and were believed to be able to enter the Otherworld.

Gods

Name

Attributes

Area

Lugh, Llew, Lugoves light, sun  
Daghda Sky  
Arawn Underworld  
Donn ‘dark god’ of the dead  
Camulos War  
Credenus Craftsman  
Cernunnos horned god, fertility  
Diancecht Healing  
Goibniu Smith  
Govannen/Gofannon Smith  
Manannen Mac Lir Sea  
Neit Battle  
Nuada Argetlamh    
Ogma / Ogmios writing, wisdom, eloquence  
Sucellos chief Gaul
Havgan Arawn’s rival  
Teutates war, lord of the tribes/clan  
Esus cruel hearth, water  
Maponus/Mabomus   Lochmaben, Dumfries
Tridamus   Dobunni tribe
Rigisamus   Central Gaul
Aesus    
Coroticaus like Mars  
Belatucadrus/Belutocadros Local, war Carlisle
Cocidius Defence/hunting  
Jalonus Contrebis   Lancaster
Rigonemetes like Mars  
Mogonitus Local Hadrians wall area
Braciaca Brewing Derbyshire
Vosegos stag Vosges Mts, France

Goddesses

Name

Attributes

Area

Epona Horses  
Brigit Poetry  
Taranis Thunder (like Diana)  
Keridwen, Cerridwen earth  
Badb(h) Battle  
Morrigu/Morrghan War  
Macha War  
Flidais Huntress  
Sulis, Sul Healing (Bath - Aquae Sulis)
Sadb Deer  
Eadon Nurse  
Rosmerta Assoc Minerva  
Andraste, Andaste    
Anu    
Artio bears Bern, Switzerland
Banba    
Dana, Anna, Non    
Eire    
Fodla    
Nantsovelta    
Nemain    
Rigantona    
Medb    
Tutela Boudiga    
Nehalennia   Holland
Dea Arduinna Wild boar Ardennes
Sequanna personification of River Seine France

Festivals

Name

Date

Celebrations

Imbolc 1st February sacred flame to wake sun from winter sleep - ‘lactation of sheep’
Beltane 1st May fertility gathering, dancing around fires
Lughnasa 1st August harvest, devoted to Lugh the sun god
Samhain 1st November Celtic New Year, free access between this world and the Otherworld

Gaelic Alphabet

Letter

Gaelic

English

Letter

Gaelic

English

a Ailim Elm b Beith Birch
c Coll Hazel d Duir Oak
e Eadha Aspen f Fearn Alder
g Gort Ivy h Uath Hawthorn
j Jogha Yew l Luis Rowan
m Muin Vine n Nuin Ash
o Oun Gorse p Peithboc Soft Downy Birch
r Ruis Elder s Suil Willow
t Tinne Furze u Uir Yew

Old Celtic Names

The following lists contain names taken from Celtic legends and historical sources. Many are only found in Latin form as they were written on inscriptions during the period of Roman rule.

Male

Aberth Abhartach Abhean Ablach Acaunus Acco
Adcoprovatus Addedomarus Adgennus Adhna Adhnuall Adminius
Adomnan Adwen Aedan Aelchinn Aer Aesico
Aesk Aesubilinus Agh Agned Agnoman Agulus
Aherne Aiel Ailbhe Ailell Ailill Aillen
Aillinn Aincel Aindelbadh Aine Ainle Ainmire
Ainsel Ainvar Airard Airetach Airnelach Airt
Albanach Albarnaid Alcuin Allobrogicus Alpin Alston
Aluin Alun Amalgoid Ambicatos Ambiorix Amergin
Amgerit Amlaibh Amulgo Andala Andela Andesasus
Andragius Androgius Aneroestus Anlaf Antedios Aouen
Apullio Arbell Arcallach Archil Archu Ardan
Argentocoxos Argentocoxus Arias Ariomardus Ariovistus Arontuis
Arranen Art Artbranan Artgal Arthgal Arthmail
Artigan Artrach Artri Arverus Arviragus Asal
Ascatinius Atepacius Attus Audagus Auisle Aulay
Aurog Autaritus Avitus Bacauda Baclan Baculo
Badvoc Baethbarr Baiscne Baithan Baithen Baithene
Balor Banquerius Banquo Barloc Barnoc Baroc
Baruch Bathan Beag Becuma Bedwyr Belatucader
Bellicia Bellicianus Bellovesus Belu Beolain Berchan
Berec Beric Bericus Bernech Berngal Berric
Bersa Betach Bhuice Bicelmos Bilis Biorach
Bitucus Bitudacus Blaan Blathmac Blathmec Bleddfach
Blescius Bloc Boann Boant Bobd Bodenius
Bodh Bodhe Bodiccius Bodugenus Boduogenus Bodvoc
Bodvogenus Bogitarus Boisel Boisil Bonoxus Borba
Bothan Bov Brach Bragon Bran Brancus
Brannoc Brath Breagan Breasal Brecbrennoch Brelade
Brennus Breogan Bres Bresal Breward Briavel
Bricriu Bricrue Brieuc Brigaco Brigantius Brigia.
Briginus Brigomaglos Brioc Britt Broccan Brockmail
Broderick Brogus Broichan Brucetius Brude Bruide
Bruidge Bruscius Brychanus Brys Bryth Buan
Buccus Buda Budocesuganios Buic Buichet Buite
Cabrach Cabriabanus Cacumattus Cadwan Caedmac Cael
Caenneth Caibre Caichear Caier Cailcheir Caince
Caincenn Cainnelscaith Cainte Cairbre Cairbri Cais
Caisel Caitchenn Caittil Calgacus Calphurn Camel
Camulacus Candiedo Cannaid Caoilte Capell Caractacus
Caradig Caratach Carbery Carbh Carell Carpre
Cartivellaunos Carvilius Cas Cascorach Cassal Cassavus
Cassivellaunus Cassobellaunus Catavignus Cathail Cathal Cathan
Cathba Cathbadh Cathlan Cathman Catigern Catiotuos
Cattigern Catualda Cavarinus Cealaigh Ceallach
Ceanatis Ceannmhair Cearnach Cecht Ceithin Celatus
Cellach Celtchar Celtillus Cenau Cerball Cerd
Cerebig Ceretic Cermait Cerotus Cesarn Cet
Cethern Cett Ciabhan Ciach Cian Cicht
Cimarus Cinaed Cingetorix Cinhil Cintugnatus Cintusmus
Ciotha Ciothruadh Cistumucus Cithruadh Clanova Cliach
Clonard Cluim Cobthach Cochlan Codal Codhna
Coemgen Cogidubnos Cogidubnus Cogitosus Coimhleathan Coinmagil
Coinmail Coinneach Coirpre Colasunius Colban Colga
Coll Colla Collamair Collbrain Colles Colm
Colmkill Colpa Colum Comgal Comgall Comgan
Comhrag Comitinus Comman Commius Compar Comrith
Comur Comux. Con Conaing Conaire Conairy
Conal Conall Conan Conaran Concolitanus Conconnetodumnos
Concuing Condidan Conmail Connachtach Connell Connla
Connor Conor Conory Conuall Copillus Coplait
Coran Corann Corb Corc Corfil Corin
Corio Cormiac Coron Corotiacus Corpry Corrgenn
Cospatrick Costicus Cotuatus Covac Craftiny Credne
Crega Crico Cridenbel Crimall Crimthan Crimthann
Criomnal Crocus Crom Crotus Crovan Cruithne
Crunnagh Crunnchu Cu Cuadan Cuailgne Cuaillemech
Cualann Cuano Cuchulainn Cuiline Cuill Cuiran
Cuirithir Culain Culcaigrie Culhwch Cullen Cumhaill
Cumhal Cumhall Cummain Cuneda Cunedda Cuneglasus
Cunetio Cunittus Cunlinc Cunoarda Cunobarros Cunobarrus
Cunobelin Cunobelinus Cunomaglus Cunopectus Cunori Cunorix
Cunotamus Cunoval Cunovindus Cur Curatio Curmissus?
Curoi Cushling Cuthlyn Cynloyp Cynran Cyrnan
Dagobitus Daich Daighre Daigre Daire Dalbaech
Dalbh Dall Dannicus Dathi Deaghadh Dearc
Dearmid Debrann Decheall Dedidach Deglain Delbaith
Demna Derc Derca Dergcroche Dergdian Dering
Desa Detha Dian Dian-Cet Diarmaid Diarmait
Diarmid Dichu Digbail Dill Dinogad Diocain
Diorraing Diovicus Diviciacus Dobar Doccius Dogfael
Doinus Dolar Dolb Doli Domhar Domingart
Domnann Domnoellaunus Donnarthadh Donn-Ruadh Dornoch Dorus
Drecan Drem Dremen Driccius Driumne Drochmail
Drostan Druim Druimderg Drust Drustic Drystan
Duach Duane Duartane Duatha Dubh Dubhacon
Dubhan Dubhdaleithe Dubhgall Dubhlaing Dubnovellaunus Dubnowalos
Dubnus Dudoc Dufan Dufgal Duftah Dugald
Dumnail Dumnocoverus Dumnogenus Dumnorix Dumnove Dumnovellaunus
Dunegal Dunegall Dunmail Dunocratis Dunod Duthac
Eab Eachaidh Easal Eathfaigh Eber Ebicatos
Eborius Eburos Echaid Ecimius Ecne Eidirsgul
Eimhir Eine Eisu. Eithis Elagabalus Elaphius
Elatha Elathan Elbodugus Elcmair Eldad Elitovius
Elkmar Elvod Elvodug Eman Emi. Emmass
Enchered Enda Enemnogenus Enestinus Eoban Eochaid
Eocho Eochy Eochymac Eogabil Eogan Eoganan
Eoghan Eolus Eparchius Epaticcu Epaticcus epatticus
Epillicus Eppillus Erc Eremon Erp Err
Ervic Esca Espaid Esunertus Etain Etar
Etarlaim Eterskel Etgall Ethain Ethaman Eunan
Evicatos Facha-Muilleathan Faelinn Faltlaba Faolan Farinmagil
Farinmail Febal Feclach Fedlimidh Feidlim Feinn
Felim Ferai Fercos Ferdia Ferdiad Ferdoman
Fermaise Fertai Fertuinne Festinien Ffion Fiacha
Fiachna Fiachu Fiacuil Ficna Figel Figol
Finan Finched Findabair Findemas Findgoll Findlaech
Finegas Finn Finnaistucan Finnan Finnbane Finnbennach
Finnian Finnleik Fintain Finvel Fiodhaidh Fitheal
Flain Flann Flannan Flidias Fochlann Foich
Foilleán Foiranach Fola Follamain Forannán Forannen
Forne Fothaid Fotla Fuad Fufidius Fullon
Fursa Gaible Gallgoid Gamal Garad Garbhcronan
Garraidh Gartnait Garva Garwin Garym Gault
Gavin Gebann Germocus Geron Getorix Gilla
Gillaciaran Gillacomghain Gillechrist Gillibride Gillicolm Gillocher
Gilloman Gingomarus Giolla-Caeimhghin Glas Glasan Glein
Glentilt Glore Gnathach Gnobeg Gnomor Gobannitio
Gobhan Godebog Goden Godfraidh Goineach Goitne
Goll Gorm-Shuileach Gorthyn Gospatrick Gothan Gourchien
Govan Graeme Graham Grannus Gretorix Grian
Grummoch Guan Guern Gugein Guitolinus Guoruoe?
Guotepauc Guthar Guthor Gwythno Hanesa Hanlon
Hanno Heber Heremon Huil Hunno Idanach
Iduthin Iehmarc Igalram Ilar Ilaunos Ilbrec
Ilbrech Ildathach Imhar Imidd Indech Indrechtach
Indutioamrus Indutius Ingcel Ingnathach Ingol Innel
Innsa Invomandus Iogenan Iollen Iolunn Ir
Irdun Istolatius Istoreth Ith Iubdan Iuchar
Iucharba Iunsa Ivomagus Ivonercus Jutus Kane
Keir Kentigern Kenulphus Kian Kilian Kinan
Kinemark Kineth Kinnear Kolbein Kuno Kylan
Kyndylan Labra Labran Lachlan Laeg Laegaire
Laeghairé Laery Laethrig Lainbhui Lairgnen Lairgren
Laisren Lanuccus? Latharne Leffius Leire Leith
Leslie Lethan Levin Lewy Lia Liagan
Liath Liathain Liathan Lifecar Lindores Liobhan
Lir Litaviccus Litugenus Llif Llud Loarn
Loarne Lobais Loban Lobharan Lobos Logiore
Logotorix Lomna Lon Lorcain Lossio Lousius
Lovernianus Luachaid Luachair Lubrin Lucco Luchta
Luchtar Luctacus Luel Luga Lugaidh Lughaid
Lugobelinus Lugotorix Lugovalos Luibra Luloecen Lyfing
Lynch Mac Da Tho Macbeathach Macbeathad Macer Machar
Machute Macnia Madach Madan Maddan Madduin
Mador Maeduin Mael Maelbeth Maelchwn Maeldun
Maelgan Maelgwn Maelinmhain Maelmadoc Maelmichael Maelmuir
Maelmuire Maelnibha Maelochtair Maelochtar Maelrubai Maelrubha
Maelsechlainn Maelsechnaill Maeltine Maglocunus Maglorix Maieul
Mailchon Maine Mal Malbride Maldred Malduin
Malliacus Malone Malpedar Malpedur Malride Mamos
Mandubracius Manducios Mannig Maol Maon Mar
Marbod Maredoc Marobodunus Martacus Maslorius Mathgen
Matuacus Matugenus Maturus Meardha Meargach Mechi
Medraut Mellonus Melmor Menua Merddyn Mhaolain
Mhichil Miach Michan Midac Mide Midhé
Midhir Midhna Midir Mil Miled Milucra
Miochaoin Miodac Miorog Mochrum Mochta Mochuda
Modhaarn Modomnoc Moengal Molacus Molaise Molloy
Moluag Monaid Moncuxoma Mongan Morann Morc
Morgund Moriartak Morias Moricamulus Morirex Moritasgus
Morvidd Motius Muadhan Muddan Muirchú Muiredach
Mungo Murchadh Mutaten Muthill Nadfraech Naid
Nantosvelta Nantua Naoise Narlos Natanleod Nathrach
Natorus Neamh Necalimes? Nechtan Nectovelius Neidhe
Neit Nemanach Nemed Nemglan Nemhnain Nemmonius
Nessa Niadhnair Nollaig Nos Novantico Nuada
Nuadha Nynia Octrialach Octruil Odhrain Odras
Ogma Ogmios Oilioll Oisin Olchobar Ollovico
Oncus Orbissa Oren Orgetorix Orgillus Orphir
Oscair Oscar Osgar Owain Paetus Patendinus
Pesrut Pisear Potitus Potomarus Prasutagus Pridfirth
Qodvoldeus Raighne Raigre Rascua Regol Reoda
Reo-Derg Rhiada Riagall Rian Rianorix Riata
Ribh Ringan Riommar Rivius Robartaig Robhartach
Rogh Roth Rowan Ruadan Ruadhan Rudrach
Rudraighe Ruide Ruith Rurio Saccius Saenius
Saenu. Saidhe Sal Salmhor Salorch Saltran
Samtan Samthainn Sangus Saturio Sawan Sceolan
Scrocmagil Scrocmail Seaghan Seanchab Searigillus Searix
Sechnaill Secumos Sedullus Seghine Segine Segovax
Sellic Semion Senaculus Sencha Senias Sennianus
Senorix Senshenn Senuacus Sepenestus Sera Servan
Sesnan Setanta Setibogius Sgoith-Gleigeil Sharvan Sholto
Sighi Sigmal Silinus Sinell Sinill Sinnoch
Sinsar Sital Sitric Skolawn Sligech Smertrius
Solais Sollus Sorio Soulinus Sreng Stariat
Starn Stavacus Strathairn Strowan Struan Suadnus?
Sualdam Sualtam Suanach Suavis Subhkillede Subsio
Sucabus Suibhne Sulien Summacus Suriacus Syagris
Tabarn Tadg Tah-Nu Tailc Taileach Taistellach
Talchimen Taliesin Talorcan Talore Tamesubugus Tammonius
Tarvos Tasciovanus Tasgetius Tassach Taximagulus Tethra
Tetrecus Tetricus Teutomatus Teyrnon Tigernach Tigernann
Tincomarus Tincommius Tocha Togodumnus Topa Tor
Torannen Toutius Trad Tradui Trendhorn Trenmor
Trenus Treon Triathmor Trogain Troghwen Tuaigh
Tuan Tuathal Tuirbe Tuireann Tuis Tullich
Turenn Turlough Tyrnon Uaithnin Uar Uccus?
Uchtain Ueda Uepogenus Uige Uirolec Uisneach
Ulchil Un Unthaus? Urfai Urgriu Urias
Urien Usna Usnach Vadrex Vainche Vallaunius
Vassedo Vatiaucus Veda Vediacus Vellocatus Veluvius
Venutius Vepogenus Vercassivellaunus Vercingetorix Verctissa Verecundus
Verica Vernico Viasudrus? Viducus Vindex Vindomorucius
Vinnian Virdomarus Viroma Virssucius Volisus Vortigern
Vortimax Vortimer Vortipor Vortrix Voteporix Vran
Vron Wannard Weonard      

Female

Ailia Ailne Ainge Airmed Aith Arminia
Barita Beara Bechulle Betha Birog Blai
Boadicea, Bodicca, Bonduca, Boudica, Voada, Voadicia Bodhmall Brec Bri Brica, Briga Brisen, Brissen
Brosna Caelur Candiedinia? Cardixa Cartimandua Ceithlenn
Cesair, Kesair Corocca Corotica Cottia Crochnuit Croderg
Cuillen Cunovinda Cutha Daalny Dalla Damona
Delgnat Deoca, Deoch Deorgreine Derbrenn Dianan Duineachta
Eala Echgte Eibhir Enghi Eponina, Eponnina Esa
Ethernais Ethil Etterna Eurbrawst Fail-Inis Fais
Fianna Findabar Finndealbh Gargeolain Ghaoitha Giorsal
Glanluadh Goneril Gruoch Guinhumara Gwyna Hlao
Huctia Huna Iamicilla Igerna Inganiad Innogen
Iorwen Ivixa Kea Keelta Lakutu Lavercham
Leine Lendar Lewinna Lia Liath Liban
Locha Maer Maerica Manissa Matugena Messbuachalla
Miluchradh Mocuxsoma Modwenna Moluag Moriath Nessan
Nesta Nynia Ogarmach Onuava Rhyanidd Rhybrawst
Rieingulid Rora Saba Sabra Sassticca Sativola
Scathniamh Sinna Snechta Stroma Sulicena Tancorix
Teleri Telta Thaneu Thola Tiabhal Truforna
Tuag Tuiren Uaine Uchtdealb Ulidia Unna
Urith Vacia Veldicca Verecunda Vicana Vilbia
Wenna          

Bynames

Beg small
Delbaeth fire maker
Fada tall
Fin fair/white (Gaelic 'fionn')
Gae-buaifnech poisoned spear
Lifaechair
Moge slave
Mor big
Olum
Uathach hateful

Cornwall

Cornwall is now an English county but appears as an independent kingdom in Arthurian legend. ‘Duke of Cornwall’ is one of the titles of the Prince of Wales.

Cornish Names

Cornish is one of the Celtic languages with close affinities to Welsh and Breton. There are no native speakers left but many Cornish placenames and surnames are derived from it. Cornish personal names are now similar to those of the rest of England with Celtic survivals or revivals quite rare. Many of these names are forms of Welsh or Breton saints' names or those of characters from Arthurian legend and are only rarely used.

Male

Given Names and Variants  

Origin and Meaning

Allun, Alan   Breton saint
Anta    
Austell, Austol    
Breaca, Breage, Break    
Breward    
Brioc    
Budeaux    
Budic    
Cadan    
Cador   Cornish king
Cini    
Cleder    
Clemow    
Colan   St. Colan, Newquay
Columb   St. Columba
Conoc    
Cornetin    
Credan    
Credus    
Daveth Davy, Day, Dei David
Digory    
Docco, Dochou    
Doniert    
Durngarth    
Elid    
Enoder    
Erc    
Erme    
Erth    
Ervan    
Euny, Erney    
Eval    
Feoc, Feoca    
Gawen    
Gennys    
Gerens, Gerent   A King and a saint
Germoc, Germoe    
Glywayatus    
Gonand    
Goran, Goron, Gorran    
Gothianus    
Grada    
Gudwal    
Gwinear    
Herygh    
Howel   Last Cornish king 'eminent'
Hydoc, Hydroc    
Ia    
Ingonger    
Ives    
Jacca   Jack
Jago   James
Jory   George
Jowan   John
Kaveran    
Ke, Kea    
Kenan, Kenen, Conan   King and bishop
Kenver   'great chief'
Kenwyn   'splendid chief'
Kevern, Keverne   Saint's name
Kitto   Diminutive of Christopher
Lide    
Ludgvan, Ludjan, Ludowanus, Ludwan, Ludan    
Maban   'mab' son?
Madern, Madernus, Madron   Saint's name
Manaccas    
Manaus    
Margh, Mar'h, Mark   King in Arthurian legend
Massen    
Maunanus, Mawnan    
Mawes?    
Mawgan    
Maylwen    
Meber    
Melan, Mellion, Mellyan, Melyn, Mullion    
Melof    
Meriasek, Meryasek   Legendary king and a saint
Merryn    
Mewa    
Mybard    
Myghal   Michael
Mylor, Melor    
Nechtan    
Neot    
Nivet    
Pasco    
Peder   Peter
Peran, Perran, Piran   Patron saint of Cornwall
Petroc, Petrok    
Probus    
Pynocus    
Rewan, Ruan   Saint's name
Rumon    
Selevan    
Selyf, Selyv    
Semane    
Sennen    
Silin    
Sithney    
Stedianus    
Stithian    
Sulain    
Sydnius    
Sythyn    
Talan    
Talek    
Tehta    
Telent    
Thei    
Tomas   Thomas
Ulogen    
Uthno    
Vepus    
Wella   William
Wennap, Weep    
Wenne    
Wethinoc    
Winnier, Winnow    
Wolvela    
Wron, Vuron    
Wynap    
Wynwoluy    
Yestin   Justin
Ythel   Cornish and Breton king

Female

Given Names and Variants  

Origin and Meaning

Beryan   Saint and placename
Blejan   'flower'
Breaca, Breage    
Burien, Buryan    
Caja   'daisy'
Ceinwen    
Chesten   Christine
Crewenna, Crewyn, Crowan   A saint
Demelza   Placename in St Wenn
Ebrel   April
Elowen   Elm
Endelient, Endelienta, Endellion    
Eseld   Isolda, from Tristan legend
Ewa, Ewe    
Hedra   October
Ia, Eia    
Jenifer    
Jenna   Jane
Kensa   'first'
Kerensa, Carenza   'love'
Kerra   'dearer'
Kew   A saint
Keyne   A saint
Kuet    
Kywere    
Ladoca    
Lowenna   'joy'
Mabyn    
Manacca    
Materiana    
Melior, Meliora, Mellier, Melyar, Melyear, Melyor    
Mellyn   'fair-haired'
Menefreda    
Meraud, Merouda    
Merewenna    
Metheven   June
Morveren   'girl of the sea'
Morwenna, Morwinna, Morwen   Saint of Morwenstow
Morwetha    
Newelina, Newlyn    
Rosen   Rose
Senara    
Sowena   'success'
Stediana    
Steren   'star'
Tamsyn   Thomasine
Tecca   'fairer'
Tegen   'pretty'
Tregereth   'mercy/compassion'
Trevenna    
Tryfena    
Vepa    
Wendrona    
Wenep    
Wenn, Wenna, Gwen   A saint

Saints

Blazey Cleer Ilny Juliot Tudy  

Surnames

Ahearn Andrewartha Andrewatha Angove Angrove Annear
Anning Arthur Baragwaneth Bargwanath Benny Berriman
Berryman Bice Biddick Blamey Boaden Boase
Boden Bolitho Bonython Borlase Bosanko Bray
Brendon Brenton Brock Budge Bullmore Bunt
Burnard Cardell Carlyon Carne Carveth Cawrse
Chegwidden Chenhalls Chenoweth Chynoweth Clemow Clemson
Clews Climo Clyma Clymo Coad Cobbledick
Cobeldick Colenso Congdon Couch Cowling Craddick
Crago Cragoe Craze Crocker Crowle Cundy
Curnow Dingle Dobell Dunstan Dunstone Eddy
Ellery Endean Eva Faull Frayne Freethy
Galtey Gay Geach Geake Gee Gerry
Gillbard Glasson Godden Goldsworthy Goninan Goss
Grigg Grose Gundry Gurvey Gynn Hain
Haines Hale Hambly Hannaford Hannah Hawke
Hawken Hawkey Hayne Hearle Hellyer Hendra
Hendry Hendy Henwood Higman Hocking Hollow
Hoover Hosking Hoskins Hotten Inch Isbell
Ivey Jacka Jago Jane Jasper Jelbart
Jelbert Jewel Jewell Johns Joliffe Jolly
Jory Jose Keast Keen Keigwin Kemp
Kent Kerkin Kerno Kersey Kestle Kevern
Kinsey Kitoow Kitto Kneebone Laity Lander
Landreth Lanyon Lawry Lean Leggo Liddicoat
Littlejohn Lobb Lory Lowry Lugg Lyle
Lyon Maddaford Maddiver Magor May Mayne
Menadue Menheneott Moon Morcom Morkam Moyle
Muddle Mundey Mutton Nacekevill Nance Nankervis
Nankivel Negus Nepean Oates Odger Odgers
Old Olver Opie Oppy Otes Palk
Pascoe Pawley Paynter Pearn Pedlar Pender
Pengelley Pengelly Pengilly Penhaligon Penn Penna
Penrose Pentreath Perrin Pethick Philp Pinch
Poldark Polkinghorne Pomre Prisk Priskan Prowse
Quick Raddall Raddle Rapson Ravilias Restorick
Retallack Retallick Rodda Roose Rose Roseveare
Rosewarne Roskelly Roskilly Rouse Rowse Rundle
Runnalls Ruse Sandercock Sandry Sara Scantlebury
Seccombe Skewes Spargo Tamblyn Tangye Teague
Terrill Thorne Tink Tinney Tippett Toll
Tonkin Trebilcock Tredinnick Trefusis Tregaskiss Tregear
Tregellas Tregelles Tregenza Tregilas Tregoning Trelawney
Treleaven Treleavin Treloar Tremain Tremayne Trembath
Tremelling Tremenheere Trenberth Trengrouse Trenoweth Trerice
Trerise Trescothick Treseder Tresidder Tresillian Trethew
Trethewey Trethowan Trevail Trevellick Trevelyan Treverton
Trevithick Trewartha Trewarthen Treweeke Trewella Trewhella
Trewin Tripcony Trounson Trudgen Trudgeon Trudgian
Truscott Tyack Tyacke Uren Veale Vellenoweth
Venning Venton Verman Verran Vial Vivian
Vosper Voss Vyvyan Warne Wearne Wellington
Whetter Wickett Woodley Woolcock Yelland  

The Isle Of Man

Despite having a fairly independent history, the Manx language is no longer spoken as a first language although there are now some attempts at revival.

Manx Names

Surnames retain some signs of their Celtic origin with remnants of 'Mac' in those beginning with 'C', 'K' and 'Q'. Resemblance to Irish and Scottish Gaelic is pronounced.

Male

Maccul Machalus Machella Maghor Maughold  

Surnames

Brew Caisment Casement Casmint Casmyn Casymond
Cooil Corlett Costain Cottier Crellin Cubbin
Fargher Furlong Garlick Kelly Kennish Kerruish
Kewish Killip Kinvug Kissack Kneen MacCasmond
MacCasmund Mylchreest Quail Quaile Qualtrough Quayle
Quilliams Quine Quinney Quirk Quislahan  

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