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Hungary

Capital : Budapest

Size: 35 900 sq m Popn: 10 313 000

History

In around 800 BC, Hungary was inhabited by the East Alpine group of Early Italic speakers. It was within the main area of Celtic settlement in the centuries before Christ and was also settled by Slavs. It came under Roman control and the provinces of Pannonia Superior and Pannonia Inferior were established by Augustus. In the west, a people called the Iazyges remained independent, separating Pannonia Inferior from the province of Dacia (Romania).

After the fall of Rome, the area was overrun by Germanic invaders and became part of the Ostrogothic kingdom in the C5th AD. In 795-6, Pannonia and the Avar kingdom to the south were taken over by the Franks under Charlemagne. Towards the end of the C9th, the Magyars, a group of Finno-Ugric nomadic horsemen, moved into the Hungarian plain and used it as a base to plunder the surrounding areas. A Magyar kingdom was established by Arpad and they were later joined with the Huns, Alans, Onogurs and Avars to form the modern Hungarian nation. The Magyars were finally defeated by the German Otto I at Lechfeld near Augsburg in 955 and assimilated into western Christianity. The first King of Hungary was St. Stephen (997-1038) who established a kingdom in 1001 and converted the inhabitants to Christianity. Another threat from the east came from the Mongols. Under Genghis Khan and his successors they conquered much of eastern Europe, including Hungary, in 1237-42 but the Empire was disrupted in 1259. When the Arpadian line died out, Hungary came under Angevin rule from 1308-86 and under Louis the Great (1342-82), gained importance within Europe to become a major territorial power in the C14th.

After the disappearance of the Serbian kingdom, it was the main European power facing the Ottoman Turks at the end of the C15th. Mehmed I failed to take Belgrade in 1456, leaving the line of the middle Danube and lower Sava as the border between Hungary and the Ottoman Empire. With Transylvania to the east, the northern part of the country was part of the shortlived empire of Matthias Corvinus (1458-90) with the south being subjugated by the Turks in the 1450s and 60s. Turkish influence was extended after the Battle of Mohacs in 1526 and the south and centre of the country became a vassal state of the Ottomans. The east was ruled by semi-independent princes and the rulers paid tribute to the Turks. By the early C17th, the Turks had been driven out by the Habsburg rulers and Hungary came under Austrian rule.

The Hungarians were restive under Habsburg control but wanted autonomy within the Empire rather than total independence. After 1815, a national renaissance began, led by Louis Kossuth. The 1848-9 revolution proclaimed a Hungarian republic and abolished serfdom but Austria suppressed it with Russian assistance. Austria was weakened by the war with Prussia, and the Hungarians gained equal status with the German-speaking population in the Ausgleich (Compromise) of 1867 which established the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Its refusal to allow Serbian independence was a major cause of the First World War when the heir to the throne, Archduke Franz Ferdinand, was assassinated by Bosnian terrorists at Sarajevo in 1914. Hungary fought on the German side and became an independent state when the Austro-Hungarian Empire was dispersed after the war but it lost Transylvania to Romania and Slovakia and Carpathian Ruthenia to Czechoslovakia.

For 133 days in 1919, Hungary was a communist republic under Bela Kun but this was ended by intervention from Austria and Czechoslovakia. From 1920-44, it had a repressive conservative government under Admiral Horthy as regent for an unnamed king, and the Gombos dictatorship of 1931-5. Hungary came under increasing German influence after 1933 and joined Hitler in the invasion of the USSR in 1941. It was overrun by the Red Army in 1944-5 and Horthy fled. A provisional government was formed and land was distributed to the peasants. In 1946, an elected assembly declared it a republic and although there were only 70 communists amongst 409 deputies, it fell under Soviet domination. A Stalinist regime was imposed under Communist Party leader Matyas R« kosi in 1946 and a Soviet-style constitution was adopted in 1949. Industry was nationalized, collectives were set up and a period of fear of the secret police began.

With the support of Soviet leader Malenkov, Imre Nagy, the communist former agriculture minister who had been part of the post-war provisional government, replaced R«kosi in 1953 and began a programme of economic liberalization. He was removed in 1955 after the fall of Malenkov but pressure for democracy mounted after Khrushchev's denunciation of Stalin in 1956. R«kosi stepped down as Communist Party leader and Nagy was recalled after demonstrations by students and workers in Budapest. The CP was renamed the Hungarian Socialist Workers' Party and J«nos K«d« r became its general secretary. Nagy legalized political parties, freed anticommunist primate Cardinal Mindszenty and announced plans to withdraw from the Warsaw Pact and become a neutral power. He was opposed by K«d«r who set up an alternative government in eastern Hungary before returning to Budapest with Soviet tanks to overthrow Nagy in November. During 1956, around 200 000 Hungarians fled to the West and there was a period of strict repression. K«d«r began to introduce liberalizing reforms in 1960 but Hungary remained a loyal member of the Warsaw pact and Comecon, the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance, which linked it to the USSR.

Relations with the USSR improved after the Brezhnev era and Hungary's 'market socialism' experiment influenced Gorbachev's policy of perestroika. Further reforms were introduced in 1987-8, including price deregulation, the establishment of enterprise councils, the creation of a stock market and the introduction of VAT. Change was rapid from 1988 and K«d«r, who was an obstacle to reform, was replaced as HSWP leader by K«roly Grosz, and was given the new post of party president. Two radical reformers, Rezso Nyers and Imre Pozsgay, entered the Politburo and in September, the Hungarian Democratic Forum, an umbrella movement for opposition groups, was formed. There was a period of far-reaching political reform and the official version of the events of 1956 was radically revised with Nagy being posthumously rehabilitated. The border with Austria was opened in May 1989 and thousands of East Germans escaped through Hungary to the West. In July, Grosz was forced to cede power to a more radically reformist triumvirate of the party president, Nyers, the prime minister since 1988, Nemeth and Pozsgay whom he joined in a four-man ruling presidium.

The national assembly approved a series of constitutional changes in October 1989 and the country changed its name from 'People's Republic' to 'Republic'. The HSWP became the Hungarian Socialist Party and adopted Pozsgay as its presidential candidate, but Grosz and other conservatives refused to play an active rÛle in the new party which was now essentially a social-democratic party committed to multi-party democracy. The standing of the HSP was badly damaged when it was revealed that the secret police had bugged opposition parties and given it the information. In 1990, talks began with the USSR about the withdrawal of Soviet troops stationed in Hungary and in June, the government announced that it would no longer take part in Warsaw Pact military exercises and that it had decided to withdraw entirely. The Pact and Comecon had been disbanded by July 1991 and Hungary was able to move more directly towards the West. The last Soviet troops had left in June and in December, Hungary signed a ten-year association agreement with the EC and was awarded trade concessions and a guarantee of economic assistance. A stock exchange was opened in Budapest and in January 1991, the Hungarian currency, the forint, was devalued in an effort to boost exports. The national assembly approved a bill to compensate owners of land and property confiscated under the communist regime. The GNP fell by 7%, industrial production fell by a fifth and unemployment rose above 7% in 1991 but Hungary has had the smoothest transition to market economy of all the former communist European states.

Rulers of Hungary

Name Reign Family Spouse
Stephen I 1000-38    
Peter the German 1138-42 exp 1046    
Obo 1042-4    
Andrew I 1044-60 dep    
Bela I 1060-3 expelled brother Andrew I  
Solomon 1063-74 son of Andrew I  
Geza I 1074-7    
St. Ladislas I 1077-95 brother Geza I  
Coloman 1095-1114 son of Ladislas I  
Stephen II 1114-31 abd son of Coloman  
Bela II 1131-41 cousin of Stephen II  
Geza II 1141-61    
Ladislas II 1161-2 son of Geza II  
Stephen III 1161-2 rest 1163-73 son of Geza II  
Stephen IV 1162-3 son of Geza II  
Bela III 1173-96    
Imre 1196-1204 son of Bela III  
Ladislas III 1204-5 dep son of Imre  
Andrew II 1205-35 uncle of Ladislas II Gertrude
Bela IV 1235-70 son of Andrew II  
Stephen V 1270-2    
Ladislas IV the Cuman 1272-90    
Andrew III 1290-1301 grandson of Andrew I, Last Arpad  
Ladislas 1301-4 son of Wenceslas II of Bohemia  
Charles Robert of Anjou 1308-1342    
Lajos (Louis) the Great 1342-82 son of Charles Robert Elisabeth, daughter of Stjepan Koromanic of Bosnia
Ladislas 1386-c1411 son of Charles III  
       
Sigismund of Bohemia -1437   Mary of Hungary
Albert (V Aust HRE) -1439    
Vladimir III Poland 1439-44    
Ladislas V Postumus 1442-57    
John Hunyadi regent 1445-52 -57    
Matthias Corvinus 1458-90    
Vladislav of Bohemia/Ladislas VII 1490-1516    
Louis II 1516-26   Mary of Austria
Ferdinand of Austria 1526 elected    
John Zapolya 1526-40    
John Sigismund Zapolya 1540-71 son of John Zapolya  
Habsburg Rule      

Emperors of Austria-Hungary

Franz Josef 1848-1916 nephew of Ferdinand  
Charles / Karl 1916-18 abd. great-nephew of Franz-Josef Zita of Bourbon-Parma

Otto von Habsburg

  son of Charles  

Hungarian Names

The Hungarian language is of Turkic origin and bears some similarities to Sumerian, Hurrian and Elamite. Although name forms are often very unlike the Latin, Slavonic or German they derive from, few Hungarian names are taken from the language itself. It has a different form and structure from the Indo-European languages which surround it (German, Romanian, Russian, Czech, Slovak, Slovene, Serbo-Croat) and is distantly related to Finnish. Close political links to Austria have exposed Hungary to the influence of Western Christianity and the German language and as many Slavonic groups were ruled from Budapest, their names have also been adopted. In the Middle Ages, the majority of Hungarians were given a Biblical name or the name of a saint, often of Latin origin. Most other personal names are of German or Slavic origin.

Pronunciation

There are fourteen vowels in modern Hungarian - a, e, i, o, u, á, é, í, ó, ú, ö, ü, and an o and u with a double accent.

s like English 'sh'
sz like English 's'
cs like English 'ch'
gy like English 'j'
y final y not pronounced
a o as in got

Hungarian Names

Male

Given Name and Variants Diminutives Meaning
Abád, Abod    
Abbás Abos Aba  
Abony    
Absa    
Acsád    
Adolár    
Adony    
Agád    
Agmánd    
Ajád    
Ajtony    
Akács, Akacsas    
Ákos    
Aladár    
Alajos    
Álmos    
Alpár    
Alvián    
Apor    
Apród    
Árkos    
Árpád    
Asztrik    
Atád    
Atalik    
Attila    
Azzony    
Bács    
Bádog    
Bagamér    
Baján    
Bajnok    
Balambér    
Bán    
Bánk    
Bános    
Bardó    
Bars    
Becse    
Bede    
Bedõ    
Bekény    
Belián    
Bendegúz    
Bercel    
Berecske    
Berény    
Beriszló    
Bese    
Bod    
Bodis    
Bódog   'fortunate'
Bodony    
Bodor    
Bogát    
Bolrobas    
Borbás    
Boris    
Borlobas    
Bors    
Boso    
Botár    
Botond    
Bottyán    
Bozsidán    
Buda    
Bulcsú    
Byrta    
Csaba    
Csák    
Csanád    
Csatár Csatárd Csató Csát  
Csegö    
Cseke    
Csenger    
Csépán    
Csepel    
Csobád    
Csobán    
Csombor    
Csongor    
Czeller    
Cziriak    
Deli    
Demény    
Dévald    
Domán, Dormán    
Dyak    
Ede    
Elemér    
Elmá    
Ete    
Etele    
Farkas    
Gál   Gall
Gálos    
Gara    
Gari    
Geréb    
Gerzson    
Géza    
Gyárfás    
Gyenes Gyenos    
Gyözö   'conqueror'
Harkány    
Hetény    
Hódos    
Holló    
Hont    
Hrvoje    
Hümér    
Hunor    
Ibrány    
Illés    
Ince    
Istok    
Járfás    
Kabos    
Kada    
Kadosa    
Kaplony    
Kapolcs    
Karácson    
Karád    
Kardos    
Kárman    
Karsa    
Kartal    
Kászon    
Keled    
Kende    
Kenéz    
Kerecsen    
Kerény    
Keszõ    
Keve    
Kilény    
Kilián    
Kolos    
Kont    
Koppány    
Kósa    
Kötöny    
Kowacz    
Kund    
Laborc    
Ladomér    
Lantos    
Lehel    
Lél    
Levente    
Lipót    
Marót    
Megyer    
Menhar    
Meniherta Menyerth Menyhért    
Nyék    
Odimos    
Oguz    
Ompoly    
Ond    
Örkény    
Oros    
Örs    
Oszlár    
Özséb    
Ozsvát    
Patony    
Pázmán    
Pentele    
Piller    
Pongor    
Radomér    
Regö    
Rókus    
Shafar    
Soma    
Surány    
Szabolcs    
Szalók    
Szecsö    
Szemere    
Szerény    
Szervác    
Szevér    
Szigetj    
Szilard    
Szólát    
Taksony    
Tarcal    
Tardos    
Tarján    
Tas    
Tass    
Termatzu    
Tétény    
Tihamér    
Timot    
Timur    
Töhötöm    
Tomor    
Ubul    
Ugod    
Ugor    
Ugron    
Ulászló    
Upor    
Uros    
Vajk    
Várkony    
Varsány    
Vázsony    
Vidor Vidos Vid Vida   Translation of Hilary
Zádo    
Zágon    
Zajzon    
Zalán    
Zámor    
Zaránd    
Zekö    
Zerind    
Zétény    
Zoárd    
Zobor    
Zoltán Zoltin Zsolt, Solt    
Zombor    
Zorán    
Zsombor    

Female

Given Name and Variants Diminutives Meaning
Cili    
Czenzi    
Hajna    
Hajnal    
Ica    
Máli    
Manci    
Menyhert    
Piroska Piri    
Remenyke   'remeny' hope
Sarolta    
Soma    
Tunde    
Tzigana Tzigane Zigana   Gypsy
Vali    
Vica Vicuka Vicus Vicuska    
Virág   'flower'
Yamna    
Zizi    

Hungarian Names of Biblical/Hebrew Origin

Male

Given Name and Variants Diminutives English Form
Ábel   Abel
Ábraham Abran Abraham
Ádam   Adam
András Andreas Andris Endre Anderja Andor Andi Bandi Andrew
Aron   Aaron
Baltasar   Balthazar
Barnabas, Barabas Barna Barnaby
Bartolomeus, Batal, Bartos, Barto Bartla, Batos Bató Bátony Bátor Bartholomew
Benjamin Bene Benjamin
Bethlem   Bethlehem
Dániel Daneil Dani, Dános Daniel
Dávid Dawyth   David
Eli Elek, Lekszi Eli
Elias Illes Ilias Elijas Helias Ellák Elias
Emánuel Mano Emmanuel
Gábriel Gabe Gabi Gábor Gabriel
Gáspár Gasi Gazsi Gazsó Gecsi Caspar, Jasper
Gedeon Gedö Gideon
Izsák   Isaac
Jacobin Jacobus Jakab Jakob Jakobus Jakov Jakab Yakab Jacsi Jake Jacob
Jan János Joannes Jansi Jancsi Janckzi Jani Jankia Janko Jenö Jenci John
Jónás   Jonah/Jonas
József Joska Joski Jozsi Joseph
Jozsua   Joshua
Jutas   Judah/Judas
Kán   Cain
Keresztély Keresztes Keresztos   Christopher
Krisztian   Christian
Kristóf Krisztof   Christopher
Lázár   Lazarus
Lucas Lukac Lukács Lukacz Lukas   Luke
Márkus Márk Marci Markó Marcus, Mark
Mattheus Mátyás Matey Máté Mati Matyi Matthew/Matthias
Melchior    
Mihal Mihalj Mihaly Myhaly Mika Misi Miska Miksa Michael
Mózes Mozses   Moses
Nicholaus Miklos Mikulás Myklus Mikó Nicholas
Pál Paulus Páli Palko Paul
Péter Petor Petre Petri Petrus Petúr Peti Petö Peter
Salamon Salaman Sólyom Solomon
Sámuel Sami Samu Samuel
Semjén   Simeon
Simonis Symon   Simon
Srul   Israel
Tábor    
Tamás Tomas Tami Tomaj Tomi Thomas

Female

Given Name and Variants Diminutives English Form
Anna Anikó, Eniko Anci, Annuska, Anuska, Anyu, Nancsi, Nin, Nina, Ninacska, Nusa, Nusi, Panna, Panni Anne
Erzsébet Errsebet Erszebet Erzebet Elizabeta Orzébet Eliza Liza Liszka Beti Boske Bözsi Erszok Erzsi Orse Oriske Zsazsa Elizabeth
Eszter Ester Eszti Esther
Éva Evike Evacska Eve
Gabriella Gabriell Gabrielle
Izabella Bella Iboya Isabella (Spanish form of Elizabeth)
Jakova   Jacoba
Johanna Janka Joanna
Jozsefa Jozefa Jozsa Josephine
Judit Judi Jucika Juczi Jutka Juthe Judith
Jakova   Jacoba
Krisztina Kriska Kriszta Christina
Magdoina Magdolna Magolna   Magdelene
Maria Mara Marja Marcsa Mari Marica Marika Mariska Marka Mary
Márta Martuska Martha
Rebeka   Rebecca
Sara Sarah Sári Sarika Sasa Sarah
Zsanett   Janet
Zsuzsánna Zsursanna Suzsi Susaka Zsuzsa Zsusi Zsusika Zsuzka Zsuzsi Zsuzsu Susanna

Hungarian Names of Greek Origin

Male

Given Name and Variants Diminutives English Form
Alexandre Sándor Sanyi Alexander
Anasztáz   Anastasius
Arisztid    
Cyprian    
Damjan Demjén   Damian
Demeter Domotor Dometor Demetor Demetre Demetri Demetrius   Demetrius
Dénes Dennes Dienes Dyenes Dyenos Dionisius Dionysius   Dennis
Jácint   Hyacinth
Jázon   Jason
Kozma   Cosmo
Filep Fülip Fülöp Fylep, Philippus Philipus   Philip
Georgiues Georgius Györe György Gyoergy Gyuri Gyurka Györk Gyugy George
Ipoly   Hippolytos
István Istwan Estwan Stephanus Pista Pisti Stephen
Tivadar Todor Twdor Fodor Tador    

Female

Given Name and Variants Diminutives English Form
Ágatha Ágota Ágotha Agi Agatha
Ágnes   Agnes
Anasztaizia   Anastasia
Borbala - Barbara    
Dorthya Doroltya Dorottya Dora Dorika Dorothea
Györgyi Gyorgyike Georgina
Ilona Onella Ica Ili Ilka Ilonka Iluska Helen
Irén Irenke Irene
     
Katarina Katalin Kali Kata Katica Katicza Katinka Katoka Kató Catherine
Margarta, Margita, Margit Gitta Margo Rita Margaret
Necia Neci  
Nikolett   Nicola/Nicolette
Sofia Zsofe Zsofia Zofka Zsofika Sophia
Terezia Teréza Tercsa Threzi Terez Rezi Réz Teca Terus Treska Tessera Theresa

Hungarian Names of Latin Origin

Male

Given Name and Variants Diminutives English form
Adrián Adorján Adi Adrian
Augustinus Ágost Ágoston Augustine, Augustus
Ambróz Ambrus   Ambrose
Anthonius Anton Antonius Antal Tonese Toni Anthony
Balás Balázs Blasius   Blaise
Balind Bálint Baline Balinth Balynth Valentinus Vallentinus   Valentine
Benedictus, Benedek, Benedik Benek Bence Benci Benke Bencse Benedict
Bonifác   Boniface
Cato    
Dezsér Dezsö   Desiderius
Dominicus Dominik Domonkos Domokos Domos Dominic
Donát   Donatus
Dorján   Dorian (inv Oscar Wilde)
Eged Egyed Egyod Egyud   Giles (Egidius)
Emil    
Fabian Fabyan Fabianus Fábiusz Fabó Fabian, Fabius
Felicián   Felicianus
Félix   Felix
Ferenc Ferencz Ferencs Ferencz, Franciscus Ferke Ferko Feri Francis
Flórián Flóris   Florian
Fortunát   Fortunatus
Frigyers Frigyes Fridrik Freek Frederick
Gregorius Gergel Gergely Gergelj Gergeli Gergo Gergo Gergol Gergor Gerjén Gerö Gurgy Gregory
Gyula Gyala Gyuszi Julius
Ignác Ignacs Ignacz Neci Ignatius
Julián   Julian
Kálmán Koloman Kalmanka Colman, Columba
Keleman Kelemen Kemenes Klement Klemen Clemens   Clement
Kornél   Cornelius
Korvin   Corbin
Laurentius Laurentus Lorencz Lorinc Lorincs Loryncz Lóránt Loreca Lorinez Lenci Laurence
Martinus Márton   Martin
Moricz Mór Móric Maurice
Oktávián   Octavian
Orbán Vrbanus Orbó Urban
Oramus Oremus Ormos    
Pellegrin   Peregrine
Piusz   Pius
Sebestianus Sebestyén Sebes Sebos Sebö Sebastian
Sergej   Sergius
Szilveszter   Sylvester
Szöreny   Severinus
Tibor Tiborc   Tiberius or Hungarian 'smith'
Titusz   Titus
Vincentius Vyncze Vince Vinci Vincse Vincent
Virgil    
Vitalyus, Wytalyius   Vitalius
Vitaris, Vitaros    
Vitéz   Vitus

Female

Given Name and Variants Diminutives English form
Adrienn   Adriana
Angyalka Angyalika   Angelica
Aurelia Aranka Aranyu Aurelia
Felícia   Felicia
Flora Florka Flora
Francziska Franciska Franci Frances
Julia Juli Julcsa Julesa Julinka Julis Juliska Julia
Kamilla Kamelka Camilla
Klára Klari Kláríka Klárisza Clare
Konstanczia Stanczia Constance
Kornelia   Cornelia
Lilike Lilli Lily
Natália   Natalia
Orsolya   Ursula
Rózsa Rozsi Rose

Hungarian Names of Germanic Origin

Male

Given Names and Variants Diminutives English equivalent
Adelbert Adel  
Adelmár    
Alberd Alberth Albertus Bela Albert
Alfréd Fredi Alfred
Berengár    
Bernad Bernárd Bernát   Bernard
Bertalan, Bertolom Berta, Berto Bertók  
Bertold    
Brúnó   Bruno
Dagobert    
Dagomér    
Ditmár    
Ditrik   Dietrich
Edgard   Edgar
Edömér    
Edvárd   Edward
Edvin   Edwin
Erneszt Ernö Ernák Ernest
Ernijó Ernye  
Ervin    
Ferdinánd Ferdi Nandor Ferdinand
Gelerd Gellért   Gerard
Gottfrid   Godfrey
Gujdó   Guy
Gusztáv   Gustav
Harold, Hari    
Henri Henrik Henry
Herbert    
Hugó   Hugh
Imre Imrus Emre Emeric Emericus   Emmerich
Ivó   Ives/Ivo
Károly Karl Karcsi Kari Charles
Konrád Kurt Conrad
Lajos Laos   Louis
Leonardus Leonárd Lénárd   Leonard
Lorant, Lorand   Roland
Medárd   St. Medard
Ödön Oedeon Ödi Edmund
Osualdus, Ozsvard   Oswald
Otto    
Reinhard    
Rikárd   Richard
Róbert Robi Robert
Rezsö Rudolf Rudi Rudolf
Vilhem Vilmos Vili Villi William
Walter    
Zsigmond Zsigmund Sigismundus Zsiga Zsigi Sigmund

Female

Given Names and Variants Diminutives English equivalent
Alberta Berta Bertuska Alberta
Alida   Adelaide
Alisz Aliz   Alice
Amália Mali Malika Amelia
Edit Duci Edith
Erika    
Ernesztina Erna Ernestine
Etel Etilka Etu Ethel
Ferike   Frederica
Frida   Freda
Gizella Gizi Gizike Giselle
Gertrud   Gertrude
Hedviga    
Ida    
Ildikó   Hilda
Irma Irmuska Irma
Jolán Jolanka Janka Joli Yolanda
Karola Karolin Karolina   Carol, Caroline
Lujza Lujzi Lujzika Louisa
Klotild   Clothilde
Matild   Mathilda

Hungarian Names of Slavic Origin

Male

Bela   'belo' white
Bogdán   god + gift
Boldizsár Boldysar Boldyszar    
Dusán   'dusha' spirit
Kázmér   Casimir
László Lazlo Ladislaus Ladislas Laci Lacko Laczko 'Wladislaw' rule + glory
Milán   Cz 'mil' grace
Sztaniszláv   Stanislaw
Vencel, Wenzel   Wenceslas

Female

Belah   fem of Bela
Milush   Cz Milena
Olga Olgacska Russian
Vera   Russian 'faith'

Various

Male

Artur   Arthur (Celtic)
Elmó  
Oszkár   Oscar (Ossianic/Irish)

Female

Monika   Monica

Hungarian Surnames

In Hungary, the surname comes before the personal name.

Abduvaliyev Ajkler Aladár
Andras Andrássy Annus
Arany Arpad Artali
B¾ di Bakics Balassa
Balla Baltar Balzar
Barati Bársony Bartok
Basirius Báthory Belkacem
Benyacs Berzevicky Blazsanyik
Bocskay Borbala Bori
Boros Buksbaum Burian
Cizinski Corvinus Csaba
Csapek Csillac Csillag
Csollang Csollany Csurgo
Czako Czene Czingler
Czobor Dardai Daroczy
Deak Demko Divos
Dobos Doczi Dohnanyi
Dombi Dorati Doroftei
Dozsa Dvorzsak EØ tvØ s
Egerszegi Ella Eötvös
Farkas Fazekas Feher
Fen Ferency Firkusny
Födes Foldenyi Forgách
Forgacs Gabor Gabris
Gaspar Gazda Gazdag
Gecsek Gerber Gero
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