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Poland (Polska)

Capital : Warsaw (Warszawa)

Size: 35 700 sq m Popn: 38 356 000

History

Around 800 BC, most of this area was inhabited by the Lusatian group who were probably ancestors of the Slavs. In Roman Imperial times, it was part of Germania which was never fully conquered. Poland became a Catholic Christian country in the C10th but tried to remain independent from the Franks by putting its churches under the direct protection of Rome. Mieszko, or Mieczyslaw, I (960-92), united the tribes of Greater or northern Poland in the late C10th. Under his son, Boleslav Chrobry (992-1025), the small Polish state acquired Masovia to the north, Lausitz, Silesia and Little Poland to the west and south and temporarily occupied Meissen, Bohemia and Moravia. In 1241, the country was devastated by the Mongols. German and Jewish refugees were encouraged to settle among the Slav population.

The first parliament met in 1331 and the country became prosperous under Casimir the Great (1333-70). Silesia became part of the kingdom of Bohemia in 1368 but under Casimir, Poland became a major territorial power in Europe, acquiring Ruthenia to the south in 1366. The northern coastal area was under the Germanic Order of Teutonic Knights but Poland profited from the trade route they opened to the Baltic Sea. However, their attempts to link their territory in Prussia with Livonia to the east and Pomerania in the west led to war with Poland after which Pomerelia, Danzig and other lands passed into Polish control. In 1386, Jadwiga, heiress to the Polish throne, married Jagiello of Lithuania (who became king as Wladyslaw II). The two countries were united to form the largest state in Europe although religious differences caused some problems and the empire of Casimir IV (1447-92) was short-lived. After the death of the last of the Jagiellonian dynasty in 1572, a series of elected kings followed.

The nobility became more powerful but Poland began to decline although there were some military successes. Stephen B« thory defeated Ivan the Terrible of Russia in 1581 and in 1683, John III Sobieski forced the Turks to end their siege of Vienna. The Cossacks of the Ukraine rebelled in 1648 and there was a long period of warfare in which the Ottoman Turks were also involved. Poland never recovered from its defeat in the war against Russia Sweden and Brandenburg and signed a treaty in 1686 which ceded Kiev and lands around the middle of the Dnieper to Russia. Dissension among the nobles, arguments over the royal elections, serfdom and the persecution of Protestants and Greek Orthodox Catholics left Poland open to interference by Austria, Russia and Prussia which led to the partition of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in 1772. In 1793, Prussia and Russia seized more land and a patriotic uprising led by Tadeusz Koíciusko was defeated. Russia, Austria and Prussia occupied the rest of Poland in 1795. After a brief period as the Duchy of Warsaw under Napoleonic France, the Congress of Vienna rearranged the division and reconstituted the Russian part as a kingdom under the Tsar. Severe repression followed uprisings in 1830 and 1863 and Russification attempts increased.

Germany occupied Poland during World War I and after the war the country was revived as an independent republic under JÙzef Pilsudski. He took advantage of the internal problems in Russia to invade Lithuania and the Ukraine but was driven back by the Red Army. Poland and the USSR agreed on a frontier east of the Curzon Line proposed by the British foreign secretary at the Versailles conference of 1919. The first years of independence were politically unstable, with 14 multi-party coalition governments from 1918-26. Pilsudski seized complete power in a coup and his government grew increasingly authoritarian. He died in 1935 and was succeeded by a military regime under Edward Ÿmigly-Rydz.

In April 1939, France and Britain made a pact to give Poland military aid if it was attacked. Germany invaded in September, beginning the Second World War, during which eastern Poland became part of the Nazi Reich. The rest was briefly occupied by the USSR in 1940-1 and was then treated as a German colony. Between four and six million Poles died as a result of Hitler's eugenic policies, about half of them Jewish. The country regained its independence after the war, and in 1946, ratified a treaty with the USSR which established its eastern frontier at the Curzon Line. Poland lost land in the east to Russia but gained land in the west from Germany. After elections, a 'people's republic' was formed in 1947 and Poland joined Comecon in 1949 and the Warsaw Pact in 1955. It was closely supervised by the USSR with Soviet marshal Roskossovsky serving as minister for war from 1949-56. Boleslaw Bierut brought in a harsh, Stalinist rule which led to the establishment of rural collectives and the persecution of Catholic Church opposition, including the arrest of Cardinal Stefan WyszyÕski in 1953. Opposition to Soviet 'exploitation' and food shortages led to serious strikes and riots in 1956.

Wladyslaw Gomulka took over as leader of the Polish United Workers' Party (PUWP), reintroduced private farming and released the Cardinal. A sudden rise in food prices led to further strikes and riots in Gdansk (Danzig), Gdynia and Szczecin in 1970 and Edward Gierek replaced Gromulka as PUWP leader. He introduced a programme to raise living standards and the production of consumer goods but foreign debt rose and there were more strikes and demonstrations in 1976. After a visit by the newly elected Polish Pope, John Paul II, in 1979, opposition to the Gierek regime mounted and it was accused of corruption. There was poor harvest and an increase in meat prices in 1980, leading to strikes in Warsaw which spread across the country. The government tried to calm the situation by negotiations with unofficial strike committees but the Gdansk shipyard workers demanded the right to form free, independent trade unions. They were given the right to strike and the Solidarity (Solidarnoíc) union was formed under Lech Walesa. Gierek was replaced by Stanislaw Kania, but unrest continued as Solidarity's ten million members continued the campaign for a five-day working week and established a rural section.

Mounting food shortages and Soviet army activity on the Polish border led to the new PUWP leader, General Wojciech Jaruzelski, imposing martial law in December 1981. Trade union activity was banned, the leaders of Solidarity were arrested and a curfew was introduced. Jaruzelski headed a Military Council of National Salvation and five months of severe repression led to the USA imposing sanctions. When the curfew was removed in June 1992, further serious riots took place. Lech Walesa was released in November, martial law was suspended in December and the Military Council disbanded. The US sanctions were relaxed when large numbers of political prisoners and activists were released in 1984. There was some reform under Jaruzelski, including liberalization of the electoral system but Solidarity remained illegal. The economy and farm output improved slowly but a huge foreign debt remained and during 1988, industry and export were paralysed by a huge Solidarity-led strike for higher wages to cope with recent price rises. The government of Prime Minister Zbigniew Messner resigned and was replaced by a new administration under reform communist Mieczyslaw Rakowski.

Solidarity was legalized again in April 1989, the formation of opposition parties was tolerated and the Catholic Church given legal rights. A new 'socialist pluralist' constitution was drafted and in the national assembly elections of June, Solidarity took all but one of the seats they were allowed to contest (most were reserved for PUWP-backed candidates). Parliament elected Jaruzelski president in July and continued in the post after the formation of the 'grand coalition' in September under prime minister Tadeusz Mazowiecki, editor of Solidarity's newspaper. The Western powers gave large amounts of aid and the IMF approved a tough austerity programme but living standards fell and unemployment rose. The PUWP became the Social Democracy Party in January 1990 and censorship was abolished in April. In July, members of the Solidarity caucus formed the Citizens' Movement Democratic Action Party (ROAD) under Zbigniew Bujak and Wladyslaw Frasyniuk to provide a credible alternative to the Walesa-oriented Solidarity Centre Alliance (SCA). The rupture within Solidarity became obvious when both Walesa and Mazowiecki contested the post of president in November 1990. Walesa won, but Mazowiecki only came third behind the previously obscure Stanislaw Tyminski, who had returned from Canada. Walesa chose economist and former Solidarity activist Krzysztof Bielecki as prime minister and his government included IMF-backed finance minister Lescek Balcerowicz and others from the previous administration.

Relations with the USSR deteriorated in early 1991 when Walesa was told that it would take three years to withdraw the 50 000 Soviet troops stationed in Poland. He refused to allow troops to pass through Poland on their way back to the USSR from other countries and a treaty was signed providing for their withdrawal by the end of 1993. A treaty of good-neighbourliness and friendly co-operation was signed with Germany in 1991. This confirmed the Oder-Neisse border and recognized the rights of the 500 000 Germans living in Poland. Three new political parties were formed. The Centre Alliance, a right of centre Christian Democratic group supported by Walesa and the Catholic Church, favoured a market economy. The Democratic Social Movement under Bujak was the successor of ROAD was supported by workers and farmers, demanded complete separation of church and state and was seen as the main rival of the SCA. Party X was led by Tyminski.

The IMF approved more major loans to support Poland's economic reform programme but discontent at the recession and decline of living standards caused industrial unrest. Bielecki offered his resignation in August 1991, complaining that the Sejm still contained many communists who did not support him, but parliament would not accept it or the government's budget cut proposals. Walesa asked it to give the government emergency powers to rule by decree until the next general election but it refused. Bielecki agreed to stay until Poland's first free elections were held in October. The voting did not produce a dominant party and Walesa suggested that he should combine the posts of president and prime minister for two years and head a 'national unity' grand coalition government but did not gain broad support. Broneslaw Geremek's left-of-centre coalition failed and in December, Walesa allowed the Centre Alliance representative, Jan Olszewki, a former Solidarity defence lawyer, to form a five-party centre-right coalition. It promised a more gradual approach to reform and to slow down privatization by concentrating on helping ailing state industries. Walesa asked for greater powers as president in April 1992 and Olszewski was ousted on a vote of no confidence in June but his successor, Waldemar Poldak, could not hold together a workable coalition. Walesa nominated Hanna Suchocka as his successor and Poland's first female premier.

During 1991-2, Poland's unemployment figures rose to over 11% and the GNP fell but inflation was reduced from 684% in early 1990 to 60%. Poland made an association agreement with the EC in 1992.

Rulers of Poland

Name Reign Family Spouse
Duke Piast -892    
Ziemovit 892-    
Leszek 892-931 son of Ziemovit  
Ziemonyslas 931- son of Leszek  
Mieszko I C 963   Dobrava, daughter of Boleslav I of Bohemia
Boleslav I Chobry 992-1025 son of Mieszko I  
Mieszko II 1025-3 dep 1032-3 son of Boleslav I  
Bezprym 1031-2 usurper  
Casimir I the Restorer 1031-58 son of Mieszko II  
Boleslav II the Bold 1058-81 dep    
Vladislav I Hermann 1081-1102 brother of Boleslav II  
Zbigniev 1102-19 lands son of Vladislav I  
Boleslav III 1102-38 divided son of Vladislav I  
Vladislav II 1138-6 son of Boleslav III  
Boleslav IV 1161-73 brother of Vladislav II  
Mieszko III the Old 1173-7 rest 1082 brother of Boleslav IV  
Casimir II the Just      
Civil war      
Leszek II 1202-27 son of Casimir II  
Boleslav V 1227- son of Leszek II  
Vladislav III C 1231    
Henry I 1231-8 Prince of Wroclaw  
Henry II 1238- son of Henry I  
Boleslav VI theChaste -1279    
Leszek the Black 1279-88    
Przemyslav II 1295-6 Greater Poland  
Vladislav Lokietek 1296-1300 1310- son of Przemyslav II  
Wenceslas II 1300- exp    
Casimir III the Great 1333-70 last of Piast family  
Charles Robert -32 Hungary    
Lajos (Louis) the Great 1332-82 Hungary son of Charles Robert  
Jadwiga 1382-99   Jagiello of Lithuania
Vladimir II / Jagiello   King of Lithuania Jadwiga
Vladislav III   son of Jadwiga  
Casimir IV Jagiello -1492   Elizabeth, daughter of Albert II of Austria
John Albert 1492-1505 son of Casimir IV  
Alexander I 1505-6 son of Casimir IV  
Sigismund I the Old 1506-8 son of Casimir IV Bona Sforza
Sigismund II Augustus 1558-72 son of Sigismund the Old  
Henry de Valois (France) 1572    
Stefan Batory (Hungary) 1572-87   Anna Jagiellonka
Sigismund III Vasa 1587-1632 son of John II of Sweden + Catherine sister of Sigismund II Anne of Styria 2 Constance of Styria
Ladislas IV 1632-8 son of Sigismund III ()  
John II Casimir -1668 son of Sigisimund III (2)  
Michael I Wisniowiecki 1669-73 elected Lithuanian  
John III Sobieski 1673-96 son of Jacob Sobieski Mary Kazimiera
Augustus II 'the Strong' 1697-1733 elected Elector of Saxony  
Augustus III 1733-63 son of Augustus II  
Stanislas Poniatowski 1763-95 abd. backed by Catherine II of Russia  
Nicholas/Romanov Dep. 1783    

Slavic Gods

Byelobog 'white god' of the good  
Dazhbog Sun  
Yarilo erotic love, fertility  
Kupala fertility goddess  
Devana Huntress  

Polish Names

Polish Names of Slavonic Origin

In common with other Slavonic languages, Polish has a great number of pet forms of names. These are almost always used except officially or in especially formal situations. As in Russian, they are formed from one or two syllables of the original name with an ending attached.

Male

Given Name and Variants Diminutives Meaning
Bialas Bialy  
Bogdan Bohdan Bodek Bodzio God + gift
Boguchwal Bogufal   God + 'chwala' praise
Bogumierz   God + great
Bogumil   God + grace
Boguslaw Bogusz Bohusz God + glory
Boleslaw Boleslas Boleslaus   'bole' large + glory
Borys Boryslav Russian, Boris
Bozydar Bozydor   'bozy' divine + 'dar' gift
Bratumil   Brother + grace/favour
Bronislaw   'bron' armour/protection + glory
Budzislaw Budzisz Budzyk 'budit' to arouse + glory
Chwalibog Chwaliborg, Falibog   'chwala' praise + god
Czcibor, Scibor, Cibor   'chest' honour + 'borit' to fight
Czeslaw Czeslav Czech Czesiek Honour + glory
Dobromierz   Good + great
Dobromil   Good + grace
Dobroslaw, Dobieslaw   Good + glory
Dobry   'dobro' good/kind
Dragomir Drogomir   'dorogo' dear/beloved + great
Holleb    
Jarogniew   Spring + anger
Jaromierz   Spring + great
Jaromil   Spring + grace
Jaropelk   Spring + people
Jaroslaw   Spring + glory
Jasomir Jaschiu  
Kasimierz Kazimierz (Casimir) Mirek 'kazic' to destroy + great
Kwiatoslaw   'kviat' flower + glory
Lech Leslaw 'lech' a Pole
Lechoslaw Leszek 'lech' a Pole + glory
Lubomierz   Love + great
Lubomil   Love + grace
Luboslaw   Love + glory
Ludomierz   People + great
Ludoslaw Lutoslaw   'lud' people + glory
Mieczyslaw, Maslaw Mieszko Mietek 'miercz' man or 'mieska' bear + glory
Miloslaw Milek Milosz, Milus Grace + glory
Miroslaw Miroslawy Mirek Great +_glory
Mscislaw   'mshcha' vengeance + glory
Olgierd    
Przemysl Przemko Trick, stategem
Przybyslaw Przbyslaw   'pribit' to be present'help + glory
Radman    
Radoslaw Raclaw Radusha Slawek Glad + glory
Radzimierz   Glad + great
Roscilaw Roscislaw   'rosts' usurp + glory
Sandomir    
Slawomierz Slawomir   Glory + grace
Stanislaw Stanislav Stanislaus Stanislas Stach Stas Stasio 'stan' government + glory
Swietomierz   'svyanto' bright/holy + great
Swietopelk   Bright + people/race
Swietoslaw   Bright + glory
Szczesny   Happy/fortunate
Wenceslaw Wienczyslaw Wieceslaw Waclaw 'ventie' more/greater + glory
Wielislaw Wieslaw Wiesiek Wiesiulek 'vele' great + glory
Wladyslaw Wlodzislaw (Ladislas Ladislaus) Woled 'volod' rule + glory
Wlodzimierz   Vladimir
Wojciech Wojteczek Wojtek 'voi' soldier + 'tech' consolation
Zarek    
Zbigniew Zbyszko 'zbit' to get rid of + 'gniew' anger
Zdislaw Zdzislaw Zdzich Zdziech Zdziesz Zdzieszko Zdzis Zdzisiek 'zde' here/present + glory
Zelislaw   'zhelit' desire + glory
Ziven Zivon Ziv 'zhiv' living

Female

Given Name and Variants Diminutives Meanings
Bogdana Bohdana Bogna Dana God + gift
Boguslawa   God + glory
Boleslawa   Large + glory
Chesna   Peaceful
Daga    
Dobrila   good
Dobromira   Good + great
Dragomira   Dear + great
Lechsinska   'lech' a Pole
Miloslawa   Grace + glory
Miroslawa Mira Mirka Great + glory
Nadzieja Nadzia Natia Nata Natka Neda Russian 'hope'
Olga   Russian form of Helge
Radmilla   Glad + grace
Radoslawa Rada Radinka Glad + glory
Rasia   Russian 'Raisa'
Roscilawa Roscislawa   Usurp + glory
Rula    
Stanislawa   Government + glory
Wanda Vanda Wandy From 'Wend'
Wiera Wiara Wira   Russian 'Vera' faith
Wladyslawa Vladislavka, Valeska Rule + glory
Zdzislawa   Present glory

Polish Names of Latin Origin

Male

Given Name and Variants Diminutives English Form
Albin   Albinus
Aniol   Angel
Antoni Antonin Atoniy   Anthony
August   Augustus
Augustyn   Augustine
Aureli Aurek Aurelius
Babtysta   Baptist
Benedykt Bendek Benek Benedict
Blazej   Blaise
Bonifacy   Boniface
Cecyl   Cecil
Cezar Cesary Cezary   Caesar
Dezydery   Desiderius
Dominik   Dominic
Donat   Donatus
Egidiusz Idzi Egidius/Giles
Emil Emilian Emeljan Emil
Fabian   Fabian
Felicjan   Felicianus
Feliks   Felix
Fidelis   Fidelius
Flawiusz   Flavius
Florentyn   Florentianus
Florian   Forian
Franciszk Francizek Franek Francis
Gawel   Gallus 'cockeril'
Grzegorz   Gregory
Gwido Gwidon Guy
Hilary   Hilarius
Honok   Honorius
Ignacy Ignacek Nacek Ignatius
Innocenty   Innocent
Januarius    
Julian   Julian
Juliusz   Julius
Justyn Juziu Justin
Kajetan   Gaetano
Kamil   Camille
Klaudiusz   Claudius
Klemens Klimek Clement
Konstantyn Konstancji Konstanty Constantine
Kornel Korneli Korneliusz Kornek Kornelek Cornelius
Krystyn Krystian Chrystian Crystek Christian
Krzysctof Krzysztof   Christopher
Kwintyn   Quentin
Laurencjusz Laiurenty Lawrenty Wawrzniec, Wawrzyniec Laurence
Lew   Leo
Leon Leonek Linek Leon
Lucjan   Lucian
Lucjusz   Lucius
Makimus   Maximus
Maksymilian Maksym Maximilian
Marceli Marcel Marcely Marek Marcel
Marcin Marcinek Martin
Marian   Marius/Marianus
Maurycy Maury Maurice
Napoleon   Napoleon
Noel   Noel
Oktawjan   Octavian
Patryk Patrycy Patek Patrick
Paulos Pawal Pawel Pawl Inek Pawelek Paul
Petruno   Petronius
Pius    
Placyd   Placidus
Prym   Primus
Remigiusz   Remigius
Renat   Rene
Roman   Romanus
Rufin   Rufinus
Saturnin   Saturninus
Serjiusz   Sergius
Seweryn   Severinus
Sylwester Silvester   Sylvester
Urban Yrban   Urbanus
Valentyn Walenty Walentyn   Valentine
Viktor Wiktor   Victor
Vincenty Wicent Wicenty Wincent Wincenty Wicek Wicus Vincent
Walerian Waleran   Valerian
Wit   Vitus

Female

Given Name and Variants Diminutives English Form
Albina Albinka  
Antonina Antuaneta Tonya Antonia
Augusta    
Aurelia    
Barbara Basa Basha Basia Barbara
Beata    
Beatrix    
Benedykta   Benedicta
Bona    
Cecylja Celja Cecilia
Celestyna Celestyn   Celestina
Danuta   Donata
Domicela   Domitilla
Emilia Emilja   Emily
Ewangelina   Evangelina
Faustyna   Faustina
Felicia Felicja Felicya Felicyta Fela Felcia Felka Felicia, Felicity
Fidelja   Fidelia
Florens Florentyna   Florence
Franciscka Franciszka Fraka Frania Frances
Gracja Grazyna Grace
Hilaria    
Honorata    
Hortensia Hortenspa Hortenzja   Hortensia
Jolanta Jola Yolanda
Julia Julja Julita Zuljeta Julia
Juljana   Juliana
Justyna   Justina
Kamila Kamilla Kamilka Mila Milla Camilla
Klara Klarybel Klarysa Clare
Klaudia Klaudja   Claudia
Klementyna   Clementine
Konstancja   Constance
Kornelja   Cornelia
Laura, Laurinda   Laura
Leokadia   Leocadia
Letycia Letycja   Letitia
Lillianna Liljana   Lilian
Lucia Lucja Lucyna Lusia   Lucy
Luisa   Louisa
Marcela Marcelina Marcella
Marianna Marinna Marjan Marjanna Marion   Marian
Martyna Marzena   Martina
Melania Ela Mela Melcia Melka Melanie
Miranda    
Monika   Monica
Natalia    
Oktawja   Octavia
Oliwja   Olivia
Patrycja   Patricia
Paula Pola   Paula
Paulina   Pauline
Petronela Ela Nela Petra Nelka Petronella
Priscylla   Priscilla
Raina    
Reginy   Regina
Renata    
Romana    
Rosabella    
Róza Ruza Ruzha Rozy Rozyczka Rozalia Rozalja Rose
Sabina Sabiny Sabina
Seweryna   Severina
Sylwia Sylwja   Sylvia
Tulla    
Urszula Urszuli Ursula
Walentyna   Valentina
Wiktoria Wicktoria Wikitoria Wiktorja Wicia Wikta Wisia Victoria
Wioletta   Violet

Polish Names of Greek Origin

Male

Given Name and Variants Diminutives English Form
Aleksander Olech Olek Oles Alexander
Aleksy   Alexius
Alojzy   Aloysius
Ambrozy Mroz Mrozek Ambrose
Anatol   Anatolius
Apolinary   Apollinarius
Apoloniusz   Appolonius
Atanazy   Athanasius
Bazyli   Basil
Cyprian   Cyprian
Damian   Damian
Cyryl Cyrek Cyril
Dariusz Darjusz Darek Darius
Demetrjusz Dymitr Demetrius
Dionizy - Dennis
Eufemiusz - Euphemius
Eugeniusz Genek Eugene
Eustachy   Eustace
Filip Fil Filipek Philip
Hieronim - Jerome
Hipolit - Hippolytos
Ireneusz Irén Ireneus
Izydor Dorek Isidor
Jacenty Jacek Jach Jack Hyacinth
Jazon - Jason
Jerzy, Joris Jurek George
Kosmy - Cosmo
Makary Machas Macarius
Metody - Methodius
Mikolaj Mikolai Mikulasek Mikus Nicholas
Miron   Myron
Narcyz Nardek Narciussus
Nestor    
Nikodem - Nicodemus
Prokop - Procopius
Sebastjan   Sebastian
Stefan Szcepan Szczepan   Stephen
Tadeusz - Thaddeus
Teodor Fedor Feodor Teos Tolek Theodore
Teofil - Theophilact
Tymoteusz Tomek Tymek Tymon Timothy
Ulisses   Ulysses
Zenon    

Female

Given Name and Variants Diminutives English Form
Agata   Agatha
Agnieska Agnieszka   Agnes
Aleksandra Olesia Alexandra
Altea   Althea
Anastazja Asya Nastka Nastusia Anastasia
Andzelika   Angelica
Celina Cela Celek Celinka Celka Cesia Cyla Selina
Daria Dana Fem of Darius
Delfina   Delphine
Diana    
Dorota Dora Dorothy
Elena Eleonora Ela Eleanor
Eudora Dora Euda  
Eugenja   Eugenia
Eufemia, Eufenya   Euphemia
Eulalja   Eulalia
Euzebia   Eusebia
Febe   Phebe
Filipa, Filipina   Philippa
Filomena   Philomena
Halina   Helena
Iola   Iole
Irena   Irene
Katarzina Katarzyna Kasia Kasienka Kasin Kaska Kassia Katya Katrine Katrin Karin Kati Katherine
Kora   Cora
Lidia Lidka Lydia
Malgorzata, Margarita Malgosia Margisia Gita Gosia Goska Rita Margaret
Melisa   Melissa
Morela    
Ofelja   Ophelia
Olimpia   Olympia
Pelagia Pela Pelagia
Penelopa Lopa Pela Pelcia Penelope
Phillis   Phyllis
Pia   From 'pious'
Rea   Rhea
Roda   Rhoda
Roksana   Roxane
Sibilia   Sybil
Sofronia   Sophronia
Tadea   From Thaddeus
Tekla Tekli Thecla
Teodora Teda Teodory Theodora
Teodozji Dosia Theodosia
Teresa Zyta Theresa
Theofila   Theophila
Uranja   Urania
Weronika   Veronica
Zefiryn   Zephyrine
Zenobja   Zenobia
Zoe   Zoe
Zofia Zofja Zocha Zosia Sophia

Polish Names of Biblical Origin

Male

Given Name and Variants Diminutives English form
Aron   Aaron
Adam Adok Adam
Andrzej Andrzei, Jedrzej Jedrej Jednek Jednis Jedrik Andrew
Barnabo Barnaba   Barnaby
Bartolomiej Bartosz Bartholomew
Beniamin   Benjamin
Daniel   Daniel
Dawid   David
Eljasz   Elias
Emanuel   Emmanuel
Gabrjel Gabrys Gabrysz Gabriel
Izaak Izak   Isaac
Izajasz   Isaiah
Jakob Jakub Koby Kuba Kubu Jacob
Jan, Ivan Evan Iwan, Jovan Janek Janik Janko Janos Janusz Janiusz Janiuszek John
Joachim   Joachim
Jonasz   Jonah/Jonas
Jonatan   Jonathan
Józef Josef Josep Yusef Jozio Joseph
Kasper   Caspar
Lazarz   Lazarus
Lucas Lukasc Lukasz   Luke
Maciej, Mateusz, Matus, Matys Maciek, Máta, , Matejek, Matejík, Matejícek, Matusek, Matuszek, Matousek, Matýsek Matthew
Melchior   Melchior
Michal   Michael
Mojzesz   Moses
Natan   Nathan
Nathaniel, Nataniel, Nathanial   Nathaniel
Noe   Noah
Piotr Pietrek Piotrek Peter
Rafal    
Serafin   Seraphinus
Szymon   Simon
Tomasz Tomcio Tomek Tomico Thomas
Urjasz   Uriah
Zacharjasz   Zachariah

Female

Given Name and Variants Diminutives English Form
Aniela   Angela
Anna Ania Aneta Anika Anka Anula Anusia Zaneta Anne
Daniela   Danielle
Debora   Deborah
Elzbieta Ela Eliza Elka Liza Elizabeth
Ester Estera   Esther
Ewa Ewka Ewelina Ewusia Eve
Gabriela Gabrysia Gabriella
Hania   Hannah
Izabella Izabel Izabela   Isabella
Jana, Hanna Janecska Janka Jasia Janina Janki Jane
Joana Joanna Joanka Joanny Hanka Jonna Joanna
Jozefa Jozefina   Josephine
Judyta   Judith
Krystjana Krysta Krystka Christiana
Krystyna Krystyn Krysta Krysia Krystka Krystynka Christina
Magdalena Magdelina Madde Madzia Magda Magdosia Magdusia Magdalene
Maria Marja Macia Mani Mania Manka Marika Marusia Maryla Maryli Marysi Marysia Marzena Masia Mary
Maria-Ruth    
Maria-Teresa    
Marta Marzena Martha
Michalina Michalin Misia Michelle
Nijole   Nicole
Rachela Rahel   Rachel
Rebeka   Rebecca
Rut   Ruth
Salomea   Salome
Sara Zarah   Sarah
Serefina   Seraphina
Stefania Stefa Stephanie
Tamary   Tamar
Tomazja   Thomasina
Zuzanna Zuzanny Zusa Susanna

Polish Names of Germanic Origin

Male

Given Name and Variants Diminutives English form if different
Alamen    
Alfons   Alphonse
Anzelm   Anselm
Bernard Bernardyn  
Brunon   Bruno
Edgar Edik  
Edmund    
Eduard Edzio Etzio Edward
Ernest    
Eryk   Eric
Ewald    
Ferdynand   Ferdinand
Fryderyk Fredek Frederick
Gerard Gerik  
Gerwazy   Gervase
Gustaw   Gustav
Henryk Heniek Henry
Herman    
Hubert    
Iwo   Ivo
Karol Karolek Charles
Konrad Kurt Conrad
Ludwik   Ludwig
Oliwjer   Oliver
Otto Otton  
Rajmund   Raymond
Renard    
Roderyk   Roderick
Romuald    
Rudolf    
Ryszard Rysio Richard
Ulryk   Ulrich
Waldemar    
Walter    
Wendelin, Wandelin, Wandulkin   Germanic 'wend' a Wend
Wilhelm Wilek Wilus  
Witold    
Zygmunt   Sigmund

Female

Given Name and Variants Diminutives English form if different
Adelajda Adela Adelina Alina Alka Alaka Adelaide
Alberta Albertyna  
Aldona    
Alicja Ala Alinka Alice
Amalia Amaljia Amelia Amelja   Amelia
Berta   Bertha
Blanka   Blanche
Edyta   Edith
Emma    
Etel Atka Etta Ethel
Freyderyka Fryderyka   Frederica
Gertruda Giertruda Truda Trudka Gertrude
Gizela   Giselle
Gundula    
Henrieta Henryka Henka Henrietta
Inga    
Irmina    
Iwona    
Jadviga Jadwiga Wiga Wisa German 'Hedwig'
Karolin, Karolina   Caroline
Ludwika Ludka Iza Lilka Fem of German 'Ludwig'
Matylda   Matilda
Otylia   Ottilie
Ryszarda   Richarda
Ulryka   Ulrica
Zeraldina   Geraldina

Polish Names of Various Origins

Male

Atjasz    
Artur   Arthur (Celtic)
Iazech    
Igor   Russian
Jalu    
Kanitzar    
Kazio    
Ksawery Kszawery   Xavier (Basque)
Magnar    
Milij    
Olaf   Norse
Osman    
Osmo    
Szczester    
Tomislav    
Zarek    
Zedorik   Cedric

Female

Brygid Brygida Brygita Bryga Zytka Bridget (Irish)
Kordelja Delja Cordelia (Celtic)
Olenka    

Polish Surnames

Some Polish surnames take a different ending for males and females (ski - ska). These are usually considered more aristocratic. I have entered them in the forms in which I have found them. Spellings can also vary in translation.

Abratkiewicz Ahrens Aronowitz
Bachleda Baginsky Bakhvalova
Balanowski Balcerowicz Balcerzak
Balicki Balzac Banaszak
Bartelski Bartkowiak Bartosz
Bartoszak Bem Bicukowski
Bielecki Blaszczyk Bocian
Bojcun Bonk Bonte
Borek Borniski Borowska
Borzecki Borzykowski Brezinska
Bromka Brzezinska Brzezinski
Bubelski Buch Buczacz
Bujak Burstzyn Bury
Charnowski Chichlowski Chmara
Chojecka Ciesinski Cimonszewicz
Cowalski Cybulski Czajkowski
Czartoryski Czernin Czubak
Czwisnjowski Dabrowski Danilczyk
Dembowski Demidowicz Deren
Dikowski Dlugopolski Dlugosielski
Dmowski Dobrzynski Domaszewski
Draczynski Drewnowski Drugnowski
Drzazgowski Duglosz Duzynski
Dyk Dzielwialtowski Dziewanowski
Dzikiewicz Dzwonicki Eile
Farasiewicz Fialkowska Fialkowski/a
Frasyniuk Freinkel Gaida
Gajewski Galka Gasioworski
Genachowski Georgusz Geremek
Gerkasy Gierulewicz Godziszewski
Golota Gomulka Gorczinski
Gorzynski Gospodyni Grabowska
Greckij Gretsky Grocholska
Gruca Gruszeckyj Grzybowska
Gusewski Haczek Hadokowitz
Halusaynskyi Hanusz Holowczyc
Holowycz Iglikowski Ivoropaj
Iwinska Jaigagewski Jakubczak
Jakubowski Jancewicz Jankowska
Jankowski Janowitz Januszczak
Januszewski Jarmulowicz Jaroskavsky
Jaruzelski Jaskula Jaworski
Jedrusinski Jeziorkowska Jodorowsky
Kaldowski Kalendovsky Kalinska
Kaminska Kandelcukier Kantorowicz
Kapuscinski Karaczun Karczmarek
Karczmareks Karlowicz Karolkiewicz
Kasperczak Kasprowicz Kasprzyk
Kawczynski Kiesietowski Kieslowski
Kilanowicz Kinserdal Kis
Kisza Klim Klima
Klimkowski Kluk Kobiela
Koblak Kobolowski Kocinski
Kohutak Kohutek Kolakowski
Kolbe Kolodowicz Komját
Komorowski Komorowski/a Konarski
Kondracki Kondrat Kondratowicz
Kondzaella Kondziolka Koprda
Korda Korzeniewski Korzeniowski
Kosciuszko Kosko Koslacz
Koslewski Kostka Kotas
Kotewicz Kovacevich Kovel
Kowalski kowelska Kozlowski
krakowski Krasicki Krasinski
Krawczyk Kreisky kritski
Kryzwonos Krzywanski Krzywicki
Krzyzanowski Kubovy Kubrick
Kudzinowski Kujawski Kulpa
Kupka Kurbiel Kurowski
Kurylowicz Kusnierewicz Kwasniewski
Kwasntewski Kwiatkowski Kwiecien
Labanowski Lazaridis Lelewel
Lenska Lesek Leszcznska
Leszczynska Lewinsky Lipiec
Liss Liszinski Lubaszenko
Lubelsky Lucjan Lukasewicz
Lukaszczyk Lukaszewski Lutoslawski
Machalica Maciek Mackcewiak
Mackowiak Mahlke Makoiecka
Makowicik Maksymiuk Maksymowicz
Malcikowski Malek Malewski
Malinomowski Malinowski Mankus
Marcinkiewicz Marcinkowski Marievska
Maskorzewski Mateja Matschewski
Matuschanskavasky Mazowiecki Mazowieki
Mazur Mazurkiewicz Mehlich
Michalcyk Michalczewski Michalovsky
Mickiewicz Mierzwinski Mikolajcik
Milosz Mirga Miternowski
Mleczko Mušinskij Mwowski
Mysinski Nastula Niemojowski
Nowak Nviciutie Olbroz
Olichwierczuk Olichwierxzuk Olitski
Olsza Olszewki Olszewska
Olynyk Orlos Osipovski
Osmulska Ostapiuk Osuch
Otræbski Paderewski Palsudski
Paradowska Partyka Pawlikowski
Peczak Peplinski Peretsky
Pieluzek Pietucha Pilaczynski
Pilarczyk Pilenz Pilsudski
Piotkowski Pitkowski Pitowski
Piudak Plawgo Plazewska
Plomin Podialik Podivinsky
Pokriefke Polanski Poldak
Poleska Pollack Poniatowski
Popieluszko Posnansky Potocki
Poznanski Prazmowski Proopek
Pruszkowski/a Przybyiski Ptaszynski
Pyrek Radtke Radwanski
Radziwill Rakowski Rechnio
Rela Rogowski Rokowski
Rosiak Rostkowski Rostow
Roszko Rowicki Rozwadowski
Rozycki Ruchala Rusedski
Rybak Rydz Ryshich
Rysiukiewicz Safarewicz Sawatsky
Sbroczynski Scigaczewski Shablovsky
Shubinsky Sidelsky Sierakowski
Siudek Skarba Skrowaczewski
Skrzypinski Skupien Slowacki
Smarz Smigly-Rydz Smoczynski
Sokolowski Sosabowski Sowinski
Stariczack Stasic Staszewska
Staszicz Stelmach Stera
Stryjski Suchocka Suidek
Swobodo Szajner Szapolwska
Szasz Szczuka Szymanowski
Szystva Tancsics Tarnawska
Tiwontschik Tobolowsky Tolkmit
Tomaszewicz Trafas Trzcinska
Turnau Urbansky Urbas
Uryniuk Vanska Vorotrky
Waglewski Wajda Waksztok
Walencewicz Walesa Warnicka
Warshawski Watkowski Weclawek
Weinkove Wielpolski Wieniawski
Wieruszowski Wisniewski Witold
Wlodarcyk Wodoslawsky Wogchiek
Wojcik Wojnar Wojtyla
Wolflin Wolinski Wolotka
Wyndrowski Wynorski Wysocki
WyszyÕski Wyszynski Yampolsky
Zabawska Zagorska Zakarzewski
Zamoyski Zapalowski Zastrzezynski
Zbigniew Zelinsky Zigarsky
Ziolkowski Ziomkowski Ziska
Zyndram Zyrnicki  

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