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Czech Republic

Capital : Prague

Size: 30 400 sq m Popn: 10 299 000

Slovak Republic

Capital : Bratislava

Size: 18 900 sq m Popn: 5 297 000

The area north of the River Danube was towards the edge of the major Celtic settlement. It was never really part of the Roman Empire, with the Iazyges and Samatians remaining independent. During the mass migration of Germanic tribes after the influence of Rome was removed in the C5th AD, it was settled by, among others, the Rugii, Slavs and Sueves. The territory of Bohemia on the border of the Frankish Empire covered part of the same area and was in the path of the Magyar invasions after they had based themselves in the Hungarian plain in the C9th and C10th.

Bohemia (Cechy)

The name 'Bohemia' is derived from its earliest known inhabitants, a Celtic people called the Boii. Christianity was introduced in the C9th and the See of Prague established in 975. Bohemia grew in status under the Premyslid family, emerging as a political unit under Boleslav I (929-67), but the nobility willingly became vassals of Germany in 950 when they were threatened by the Hungarians. The Holy Roman Emperor, Charlemagne, established a protectorate over the Celtic, Germanic and Slavic tribes in the area. There was a brief Polish occupation under Boleslaw Chobry in 1003-4. King Ottocar I introduced feudalism in the early C13th.

Mining attracted large numbers of German settlers who had a strong influence on culture and society. The Kingdom of Bohemia had included Moravia for some time, but it was Ottocar II in the C13th who set out to build a state reaching as far as the Adriatic, including Austria. His policies were unpopular with his nobles and he was defeated and died in 1278 leaving a way in for the Habsburgs to take power in Austria. The Premyslid dynasty was extinct by 1306 and in 1310, John of Luxembourg, son of the holy Roman Emperor Henry VII, founded in a German-Czech royal dynasty. His son also became HRE as Charles IV and Bohemia rose again to take control of Brandenburg, Lusatia, Silesia and the Upper Palatinate. The See of Prague became an Archbishopric and a university was founded.

Social and religious unrest began under Charles IV's son, Wenceslaus, and weakened the power of the crown. The reformer, Jan Hus, was condemned and burned in 1415 and the resulting Hussite wars (1420-36) developed an anti-German slant. In 1526, the whole kingdom became part of the Austrian Habsburg dominions. The long religious struggle between Catholics and Protestants came to a head with Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II defeating the Bohemian Protestants in 1618-21. Catholicism was now the only religion allowed in Bohemia and Moravia. The kingdom remained under Habsburg rule until 1918 when it was included in the new independent state of Czechoslovakia.


This area was settled by Slavs in the C5th and 6th. The Magyars occupied it in the C10th and it was part of the kingdom of Hungary until becoming a province of Czechoslovakia in 1918. From 1939-45, Slovakia was a puppet state under German domination. It was abolished as an administrative division in 1949 but was re-established as a sovereign state when the Czechoslovak Republic broke up in 1993.


Although the Czechs tried to gain autonomy within it in the C19th, Bohemia remained part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire until after the First World War. The new state of Czechoslovakia consisted of the Habsburg 'crown lands' of Bohemia, Moravia and Lower Silesia with the former Hungarian territories of Slovakia. Carpathian Ruthenia was added when the Allies recognised the new republic under the Treaty of St Germain-en-Laye. As well as the Czechs and Slovaks, the population included a German minority in the north and Hungarians or Magyars in the south. In the 1920s it made alliances with the other new states of Yugoslavia and Romania which developed into the 'Little Entente'. Considerable economic and political progress was made until the 1930s. Czechoslovakia was the only state in Eastern Europe to retain a parliamentary democracy throughout interwar period, with five coalition governments dominated by the Agrarian and National Socialist Parties under Thomas Masaryk as president.

When the Nazi leader, Hitler, rose to power in Germany, there was revival of opposition amongst the German minority and nationalism amongst the Magyars and the Slovak clerical party also demanded autonomy for Slovakia. In 1938, Britain, France, Germany and Italy made the Munich Agreement which took the Sudetenland from Czechoslovakia (which was not consulted) and gave it to Germany as a peace-keeping initiative but this was unsuccessful and Germany occupied the rump Czech state in 1939, contributing to the outbreak of WWII. Eduard Beneë established a government in exile in London until Czechoslovakia was liberated by Soviet and American troops in 1945. Around 2 million Sudeten Germans were expelled and Czech Ruthenia was transferred to the Ukraine, a Soviet Republic. The elections of 1946 led to a slight majority for the left and the communists seized power, winning an election victory in May. Beneë , who had become president in 1945, resigned. The country was divided into 19 regions which became 10 with the cities of Prague and Bratislava separate, in 1960. There was a Stalinist regime under Presidents Klement Gottwald (1948-53), Antonin Zapotocky (1953-7) and Antonin Novotnú (1957-68).

Pressure from students and intellectuals led to policy changes from 1965. When Novotny was replaced as Czechoslovakian Communist Party leader by Alexander Dub¹ ek, and as president by General LudvÍ k Svoboda, and Oldé ich ‡ ernik became prime minister in 1968, a liberalization programme, the Prague Spring, began. Czechoslovakia assured the USSR that it would remain within the Warsaw Pact but in August 1968, 60 000 troops were sent in to restore orthodoxy. After the invasion, which killed over 70 and wounded at least 266, and a purge of liberals from the CCP began. A Slovak Brezhnevite, Gust« v Hus« k, became CCP leader in 1969 and the Czech, LubomÍ r ž trougal, became prime minister in 1970. Svoboda remained president until 1975 and negotiated the Soviet withdrawal. Repression slackened a little after an amnesty was extended to some of the 40 000 who had fled during the invasion but the 'Brehznev Doctrine' was now in place, allowing the Soviet Union to intervene if any of its satellites tried to leave the Communist block. Over 700 intellectuals and former party officials signed the human rights manifesto 'Charter 77' in response to the 1975 Helsinki Conference on Security and Co-operation in Europe. This led to another crackdown in 1977 and Hus« k's Czechoslovakia became a strong ally of the USSR and during the 1970s and early 80s.

When Mikhail Gorbachev became Soviet leader in 1985, pressure for reform increased and Czech-born economist Miloë Jakeë replaced Hus« k as CCP leader in 1987 although he remained president. Jakeë and reformist prime minister, Ladislav Adamec, introduced a restructuring (prestavba) programme modelled on the USSR's perestroika, but the approach was cautious and the increasing dissident activity was suppressed. In November 1989, democracy movements in Eastern Europe inspired a series of initially student-led pro-democracy rallies in Wenceslas Square, Prague. The early rallies were brutally suppressed by the army but support grew and spread to the Slovak capital, Bratislava. Civic Forum, an opposition movement, was formed under playwright and Charter 77 activist Vaclav Havel and attracted the support of important members of the small political parties that made up the ruling CCP-dominated National Front coalition. Jakeë resigned and was replaced by Karel Urbanek, a South Moravian, and the politburo was purged. The national assembly voted to remove the CCP's 'leading rÛ le' in government and opposition parties were legalized. In December, Adamec resigned and Mari« n ‡ alfa formed a 'grand coalition' government in which former dissidents were given key posts. The rehabilitated Dub¹ ek became chairman of the federal assembly and Havel became president on 29th December. An amnesty was extended to political prisoners and the CCP agreed to give up its existing majorities in the federa; and regional assemblies and state agencies. ‡ alfa resigned from the CCP in January 1990 but remained prime minister and Havel was re-elected without opposition in July.

There was friction between Czechs and Slovaks and some devolution of power was introduced in 1990. A bill of rights was passed in January 1991 and moves were made towards price liberalization and the legalizing of small businesses. Property nationalized after 1948 was returned to its owners. In April 1990, the country adopted the name 'Czech and Slovak Federative Republic'. The Slovak Republic, encouraged by the Slovak National Party, declared Slovak its official language. Early in 1991, Civic Forum divided into the centre-right Civic Democratic Party under finance minister V« clav Klaus and the social-democratic Civic Forum Liberal Club, renamed the Civic Movement, under foreign minister Jiri Dienstbier and deputy prime minister Pavel Rychetsky. Its Slovak counterpart, Public Against Violence, also split when Slovak premier Vladimir Meciar formed a splinter group which wanted greater autonomy from Prague. He was dismissed over policy differences by the presidium of the Slovak National Council in April 1991 and his supporters held protest rallies in Bratislava. Jan Carnogursky, leader of the Christian Democratic Movement, the junior member of the PAV-led ruling coalition became premier. In October, the PAV became a liberal-conservative political party, the Civic Democratic Union-Public Action Against Violence (PAV), under Martin Porubjak. The major political parties of Czechoslovakia were dividing into separate Czech and Slovak groups.

The last Soviet troops left in April 1991 and in July, the USSR agreed to pay the equivalent of 160 million US dollars in compensation for the damage they had done. Phased privatization of Czech industry began in August and friendship treaties were signed with France, Germany and the USSR in October. After the general election of June 1992, CDP leader V« clav Klaus became prime minister, President Havel resigned and it was agreed that separate Czech and Slovak states would be created. The Slovakia-based PAV became the Civic Democratic Union in October 1992 and in January 1993, Czechoslovakia divided into two sovereign states, the Czech Republic in the west (the old kingdom of Bohemia or Cechy) and Slovakia in the east.

Czech and Slovak Rulers


Name Dates Relationship Spouse
Mojmir c 845    
Rostislav 845-70 dep    
Svatopulk 870-94 nephew Rostislav  
Mojmir + Svatopulk II 894- sons of Svatopulk  
Conrad Otto 1182- awarded by Frederick  

Bohemia (Czechy)

Borivoj I c 875   Ludmilla
Spytihnev c 895 son of Borivoj I  
Vratislav I c 920   Dragomira
Wenceslas -929    
Boleslav I 929- brother of Wenceslas  
Wenceslas -967 son of Boleslav I  
Boleslav II the Pious 967-99 son of Wenceslas  
Boleslav III 999-1003 dep    
Vladivoj 1003 brother of Boleslav of Poland  
Jaromir 1004-12 dep    
Oldrich 1012-34    
Bratislav I 1034-55 son of Oldrich  
Spytihnev II 1055-61    
Vratislav II 1061-92 brother of Spytihnev II  
Conrad 1092 brother of Vratislav II  
Bratislav II 1092-1100 son of Vratislav II  
Borivoj 1100-7 brother of Bratislav II  
Svatopluk c 1109    
Vladislav I 1111-25 brother of Borivoj  
Sobeslav c 1125-40 brother of Vladislav I  
Vladislav II 1140-73 abd son of Vladislav I  
Frederick 1173-    
Henry Bretislav 1193-7 Bishop of Prague  
Vlasislav Henry 1197 abd    
Premysl Ottokar I 1197-1230    
Wenceslas I 1216-53    
Premysl Ottokar II 1253-78    
Wenceslas II 1278-1305 son of Ottokar II  
Wenceslas III 1305 Last Premysl son of Wenceslas II  
Rudolf 1305-7 son of HRE Albert  
Henry of Carinthia 1307-10    
John the Blind of Luxembourg 1310-46 son of HRE Henry VII Elizabeth, daughter of Wenceslas II
Charles IV HRE 1346-78    
Wenceslas IV 1378-1419 son of Charles  
Sigismund HRE Hung 1419- brother of Wenceslas IV  
Korybut -1427    
George of Podebrady 1458-71    
Vladislav/Ladislas II 1471-1516    
Louis II (Hungary) 1516-26 killed at Mohacz Mary of Austria


Ferdinand of Austria 1526-    
Rudolf (II HRE) -1611 dep    
Matthias 1611- brother of Rudolf II  
Frederick 'Winter King' 1619-20 5 weeks V, Elector Palatine Elizabeth, daughter of Charles I of England
Habsburg Rule (see Austria) -1918    

Former Czechoslovakian Names

Czech and Slovak Names of Slavic Origin


Given Name and Variants Diminutives Meanings
Blahoslav Blahos, Blahosek blessed + glory
Bohdan   God + gift
Bohumil Bohous God + grace/favour
Bohumír   God + great
Bohuslav Bohous Bohus God + glory
Bojan Bojanek Bojek Bojik 'boi' battle
Boleslav Bolek Large + glory
Borivoj Bora Borik Borek 'borit' to fight + 'voi' warrior
Bozidar Boza Bozek 'bozy' divine + 'dar' gift
Bratislav   'brat' brother + glory
Bretislav Bretik 'brech' noise/din + glory
Bronislav/Branislav Branek Branik 'bron' armour/protection + glory
Budislav Budek 'budit' to arouse + glory
Ceslav/Ctislav   'chest' honour + glory
Ctibor Ctik Honour + to fight
Dalibor Dal Dalek 'dal' afar + 'borit' to fight
Dobromil   Good + grace
Dobromir   Good + great
Dobroslav   Good + glory
Drahomir Draha, Drahos, Drahosek 'dorogo' dear/beloved + great
Dusan Dusanek Dusek 'dusha' spirit/soul
Jarek Jarousek 'jaro' spring
Jaromil Jarmil Jarek Spring + grace/favour
Jaromir Jarek Spring + great
Jaropluk Jarek Spring + people
Jaroslav Jarda Jarek Spring + glory
Kvetoslav   Flower + glory
Lubomir Lubor Lumir Luba Lubek Lubomirek Luborek Lubos Lubosek Love + great
Ludomir Ludek People + great
Ludoslav Ludek People + glory
Mecislav Mecek Mecik Mecislavek Man or bear + glory
Milan Milic 'mil' grace/favour
Miloslav Milda Milon Milos Grace + glory
Miroslav/Miroslawy Mirek Great + glory
Mstislav Mstik, Myslik 'mshcha' vengeance + glory
Nepomuk Pomuk, Nepomucek St John of Nepomuk
Premysl Myslik Premek Premousek Pol trick/strategem
Pribislav Priba, Pribik, Pribisek 'pribit' to help/be present + glory
Radek/Radik Radacek Radan Radko Rados Radousek 'rad' glad
Radomir/Radimir Radim, Radek etc. Glad + great
Radoslav, Wratislaus Radek etc. Glad + glory
Rostislav Rosta Rostek Rosticek Rostik 'rosts' usurp + glory
Slavomir Slava Slavoj Glory + great
Sobeslav Sobes Sobik 'sobi' to usurp/appropriate + glory
Stanislav Stana Standa Stanek Stanko Stanicek Stanik Stanous Stanousek 'stan' government + glory
Svatomir   'svyanto' bright/holy + great
Svatopluk   'svyanto' bright/holy
Svatoslav   'svyanto' bright/holy
Techomir   'tech' consolation + great
Techoslav   'tech' consolation + glory
Veleslav Vela Velek Velousek 'vele' great + glory
Venceslav/Vaclav Vacek Vasek Vena Venousek Wenzel  
Vladimír Vlad Russian, rule + great
Vladislav/Ladislav Vlad 'Volod' rule + glory
Vojtech Vojta Vojtek Vojtik Vojtisek 'voi' soldier + 'tech' consolation
Zbyhnev Zbyna Zbynek Zbysek 'zbit' to get rid of + 'gniew' anger
Zelislav Zelek, Zelicek, Zelik, Zelousek 'zhelit' desire + glory
Zdeslav, Zdislav Zdik Zdisek 'zde' here/present + glory
Zitomir Zitek Zitousek 'zhit' to live + great
Zivan Zivanek Zivek Zivko 'zhiv' living
Zlatan Zlatek Zlaticek Zlatik Zlatko Zlatousek 'zlato' gold


Given Name and Variants Diminutives Meanings
Blahoslava Blahuse blessed + glory
Bojana Bojka 'boi' battle
Boleslava Bolena, Bolenka Large + glory
Bohumira   God + great
Bohuslava   God + glory
Bozidara Boza Bozena Bozka 'bozy' divine + 'dar' gift
Bratislava - 'brat' brother + glory
Bretislava Bretka, Breticka 'brech' noise/din + glory
Bronislava/Branislava Brana Branka Brona Bronicka Bronka Armour + glory
Dobrila   Good/kind
Dobromila   Good/kind + grace
Dobromira   Good/kind + great/famous
Dobroslava   Good/kind + glory
Drahomira Draha Drahuse Drahuska Draza 'dorogo' dear/beloved + great
Dusana Dusa Dusanka Dusicka Duska 'dusha' spirit/soul
Jarka Jaruse Jaruska 'jaro' spring
Kvetoslava Kveta Kvetka Kvetuse Kvetuska Flower + glory
Libena Liba Libenka Libuse Libuska 'lib' love
Lidmila, Ludmilla, Ludmila Lida Lidka Liduna Lidunka Liduse Liduska People/tribe + grace/favour
Lubomira Luba Lubena Lubina Lubinka Lubka Luboska Love + great
Mecislava Mecina Mecka Man or bear + glory
Milena Milada Miladena Milana Mlada Mladena Miladka Milanka Milenka Milka Miluse Miluska Mladka Mladuska 'mil' grace/favour
Miloslava   Grace + glory
Miroslava Mira Mirka Miruska great + glory
Nadezda/Nadezhda Nadeja, Neda/Nedda Russian, hope
Pribislava Pribena Pribka Pribuska 'pribit' to help/be present + glory
Radomira Rada Radinka Glad + great
Radoslava Rada Glad + glory
Rostislava Rosta Rostina Rostinka Rostuska 'rosts' usurp + glory
Sobeslava Sobena Sobeska 'sobi' to usurp/appropriate + glory
Stanislava Stana Stanicka Stanuska 'stan' government + glory
Svetlana Svetla Svetlanka Svetluse Svetluska 'svet' light
Veleslava Vela Velina Velinka Velka Veluska 'vele' great + glory
Venceslava/Vaclava Vena Venka Venuska  
Vera Vierka Verka Veruska Russian, faith
Vladimíra Vladmira Russian, rule + great
Vladislava/Ladislava Valeska 'Volod' rule + glory
Vlasta   From Vlas
Zbyhneva Zbyna Zbysa Zbyhneka Zbyhneuska 'zbit' to get rid of + 'gniew' anger
Zdeslava, Zdislava Zdesa Zdeska Zdisa Zdiska 'zde' here/present + glory
Zelislava   'zhelit' desire + glory
Zitomira Zitka Zituse 'zhit' to live + great
Zivanka Zivka Zivuse Zivuska 'zhiv' living
Zlata Zlatina Zlatinka Zlatka Zlatuse Zlatuska Zlatuna Zlatunka 'zlato' gold
Zora, Zorah Zorana Zorina Dawn

Czech and Slovak names of Biblical Origin


Given Name and Variants Diminutives English form
Adam Adamec Adam
Barnabá   Barnabas
Bartolomej   Bartholomew
Daniel Danek Danes Danousek Daniel
David   David
Gabriele Gaba Gabek Gabko Riel Gabriel
Gideon   Gideon
Jáchym Jach Joachim
Jakub Jach Jakoubek Jakubas Kuba Kubes Kubicek Jacob
Jan, Johan, Ivan Jach Janecek Janek Janik Jenda Januz Janco, Hanek Hanus Hanusek Ianos Nusek John
Josef Joza Joska, Jozka Jozanek Pepik Joseph
Krystof Krysa Krysek Christopher
Lukás   Luke
Marek Marecek Mares Marik Marousek Mark
Matej/Matyas Mata Matejek Matejicek Matejik Matousek Matys Matysek Matthew/Mathias
Michel, Michael Mihal Mihel Michael
Ondrej, Andrej Ondra Ondrasek Ondrejek Ondrousek, Andras, Androusek Andrew
Pavel Pavlicek Pavlik Pavlousek Paul
Petr Peta Petka Petricek Petrik Petrousek Petulka Petunka Peter
Salamun   Solomon
Simon Siek Simecek Simunek Sionek Simon
Stepán Stepa Stepanek Stepek Stepik Stepka Stepousek Stephen
Tadeas/Tades - Thaddeus
Tomás Toman Tomasek Tomik Tomousek Thomas


Alzbeta/Alzhbeta Beta Betka Betuska Elizabeth
Anna Andula Andulka Anina Aninka Anouska Anuska Anika Anita, Hana Anne, Hannah
Daniela Dana Danicka Danka Danulka Danuse Danuska Danuta Danika Danica Danielle
Eva Evicka Evinka Evka Evulka Evuska Eve
Gabriela/Gabriele Gaba Gabina Gabinka Gabra Gabriella
Ivana Ivanka Joanna
Johana Jana Hana Joanna
Judita Jitka Judith
Kristina   Christina
Magdalena Alena Magdalene
Maria Mana Marika Maruska, Manka Mary
Marta, Marfa   Martha
Pavla   Paula
Rut   Ruth
Sarah Sarka Sarah
Zuzana   Susanna

Czech and Slovak Names of Latin Origin


Given Name and Variants Diminutives English form
Antonn Tonda Anthony
Benes Beno Benedict
Blazej   Blaise
Dominik   Dominic
Frantisek Fanousek Frana Franek Franta Frantik Franz Francis
Havel Hava Havelek Havlik Lat. Gallus, cockeril or Celtic Gall, stranger
Kája Kájin Kajicek Kajik Kajinek Ger Kai
Kamil   Camille
Kliment   Clement
Kolman Kálmán   Colman/Columba
Konstantin   Constantine
Kornel Kornek Nelik Cornelius
Leos   Leo
Libor Libek Liborek Lat Liberius, 'liber' free
Marian   Lat. Marianus, form of Marius
Rehor Horek Horik Rehak Rehorek Rehurek Gregory
Urban Ura Urba Urbek Urek Latin 'Urbanus', city dweller
Valentin   Valentine
Vavrinec Vavro, Vavrik Vavrinicek Laurence
Viktor   Victor
Vincenc Cenek Vinca Vincek Vincenek Vincent
Vít   Vitus
Zdenek Zdenecek Zdenik Zdenko Zdenousek Zdicek, Zenda Latin, 'Sidonius'


Given Name and Variants Diminutives English form
Antonie, Antonína   Antonia
Emilie Mila Milka Emily
Frantishka/Frantiska Fanka Frana Frances
Jolanta Jolana Yolanda
Kamila   Camilla
Klara   Clare
Livia   Fem of Latin, Livius
Marcela   Marcella
Monika   Monica
Raina   Regina
Ruzena/Rusena Ruza Rose
Zdenka Zdena Zdenicka Zdenina Zdeninka Zdenuska Sidonia

Czech and Slovak Names of Greek Origin


Given Name and Variants Diminutives English form
Aleksander/Alexandr Alexej Ales Olexa Alexander
Alexej   Alexius
Alois Lojza Aloysius
Ambroz Broz, Brozek Ambrose
Andel Andelik Angel
Evzen Evza Evzenek Evzik Eugene
Filip Filek Filipek Filousek Philip
Ignác Ignácek Nácek Nácicek Ignatius
Jirí Jira Jiran Jiranek Jiricek Jirik Jirka Jirousek Jirki George
Metodej Metodek Metousek Gk 'Methodius' fellow-traveller
Mikolas/Mikulas/Nicolas Mikolash Mikulase Nicholas
Prokop   Gk Prokopios, success
Teodus   Theodore
Yuri   Russian form of George


Given Name and Variants Diminutives English form
Agáta   Agatha
Alexandra Sasa  
Aloisie   Aloisia
Anastazia/Anastázie Nast'a Anastasia
Andela Andelka, Adelka Angela
Anezka Anesa Neska, Nesa Agnes
Barbora/Varvara Bara Bora Vara Barcinka Baruna Barunka Baruska Basia Varina Varinka Varya Varyuska Barbara
Darie Darina Darinka Darka Daruska, Dasa Daria (Pers Darius)
Denisa   Denise
Dorota   Dorothea
Evzenie Evza Evzenka Evzicka Eugenia
Helena Lenka Helen
Irena   Irene
Jirina Jiruska Jirzhinka Georgina
Karina   Karen
Katerina   Katherine
Larissa Lara Russian from Greek
Marketa Markta Margaret
Stepanka Stefa Stepana Stepanka Stephanie
Tereza   Theresa
Xenie   Xenia
Zofie Zofka Sophie

Czech and Slovak Names of Germanic Origin


Given Name and Variants Diminutives English form if different
Arnost   Ernest
Bedric/Bedrich Béda Bedrísek Frederick
Eduard/Edvard Eda Edward
Ferdinand Ferda Ferdinand
Gustav Gustik Gustav
Hubert Hubertek  
Imre Imrich  
Jindrich Jindra Jindrik Jindrisek Jindrousek Henry
Karel Karlicek Karlik Karlousek Charles
Ludvik   Ludovic/Louis (Ger Ludwig)
Oldrich Olda Oldra Oldrasek Olecek Olik Olin Olousek Ulrich
Otokar Ota, Otik Ottokar
Richard Risa Richard
Vendelín   From German dim of 'Wendel' wend
Vilém/Viliam Vilecek Vilek Vilémek Vilik Vilousek William


Given Name and Variants Diminutives English form if different
Bedriska Béda Bed'ka, Beduna, Riska Frederica
Berta   Bertha
Dagmara   Dagmar
Erika   Erica
Hedvika   Ger. Hedwig
Iveta   Yvette
Jindriska Jindra Jindrina Jindruska Henrietta
Karla/Karolina - Carla, Caroline
Matylda   Matilda
Oldriska Olda Oldra Oldrina Olina Oluse Riske Ulrica
Otilie   Ottilie

Czech Surnames

Ajnik Auskar Babka
Bajerle Ballok Bartova
Bejbl Belohlavek Belunek
Benackova Benesova Beranek
Berger Bialy Blachut
Blaha Blazkova Brodsky
Broucek Brozobohaty Bukvajova
Burianova Cada Cechmanek
Ceka Cenkova Cerna
Chiba Chladkova Chyba
Csiba Damasek Damm
Dolezal Dopita Dosedel
Drajzajtlova Dravec Drulkak
Dvorak Dyrlik Dzmura
Formanova Fousek Frydeck
Fuchsova Gajarsky Geitler
Gersi Gorecki Grof
Hajna Haltuch Hamackova
Hamrlik Hanzl Hasek
Hollaczek Hrdlickova Huberova
Ivanic Jagr Janku
Jasny Jedlicka Jelinek
Jenis Jez Jilek
Kadlek Kalenda Kasparkova
Kerbr Kobian Komrskova
Kopp Korbel Kotik
Kotulek Kouba Kovacikova
Kratochvilova Krautwormowa Krecek
Krejcova Kresek Kriz
Krystofiak Kubik Kucera
Kuka Kuklincao Kulovana
Kuntos Kusnjer Kwasnicki
Kwiatkowski Latal Luxa
Machacek Machek Maier
Malina Markova Martincova
Maruska Masaryk Maska
Matejovsky Maxa Melicharov
Mensik Menzel Miklosko
Mikuta Miller Miskova
Moldovan Moravec Morkes
Muzik Myslivecek Navara
Neckar Nedved Nejedly
Nemec Nemecek Neumannova
Novotny Padgorny Padrnos
Palach Patera Pauk
Pekar Poborsky Podebrady
Pokoj Pokorny Poloinsky
Polomsky Popowniak Popp
Prachal Pribyl Prochazka
Prokop Ptacek Pyc
Rab Rada Randova
Reichel Rijavec Rikl
Rucinsky Rucklova Rudova
Ruzicka Sakala Satoransky
Sawilla Schafaczek Sebrle
Sibera Silhava Siodmak
Skoch Slegr Slehobr
Smaczny Smehlik Smetacek
Smicer Smolka Soukop
Spacek Srnicek Sronkova
Stejfa Stitny Straka
Sturdza Suchacek Suchcripa
Suchopcek Suchovska Suldesova
Svejda Svoboda Svorada
Szeszavny Talich Tanda
Tchiba Tesnohledek Tomeckova
Trajbold Trinerstahc Tschetter
Tuhina Turczany Vacek
Valenta Vondracek Vostakova
Vostatkova Vostrak Vraciu
Vultarin Vydra Woboda
Wodnicki Zagrosek Zahradnicek
Zajicek Zawilla Zdenka
Zelenohorska Zempleni Zitek
Zizka Zmelik Zubaty

Slovakian Surnames

Andrejova Babon Bakos
Bakoss Balch Balic
Balosak Baluch Banka
Bassar Batory Baysura
Bednar Beleg Bena
Benach Benacka Benko
Bepko Beskid Bezek
Biel Bieleski Bigos
Bila Billi Billie
Blanarik Bochnovic Bodnar
Bolch Boliek Borkovics
Bosco Bossi Bosy
Botosova Brinarsky Buccos
Buczko Bujalos Bukvajova
Burak Bzek Cajka
Cajko Cehlarik Cernoch
Cernosek Chorey Chriepok
Chvala Cirmos Cmelik
Conko Corej Corey
Csajka Csaka Csom
Cuprik Cverna Cvirk
Demecko Dietz Doras
Drabik Drdul Drinka
Drugacs Dubosh Dubovy
Durica Duris Durocsinszky
Dusik Dutko Dziadosz
Dzubak Dzurenda Dzurik
Dzurinda Eichler Fajko
Faktor Farago Ferlikova
Fiala Figlyar Fristenska
Fumach Gabris Gabrysh
Galiova Gazo Gemela
Geras Getyko Gina
Gira Glevanyak Gondzur
Goral Gorely Grago
Grecsko Guza Habsudova
Haisman Halapy Halcsin
Hamrak Hanak Hanzelko
Harabin Harivischak Harman
Harvaniak Harvilla Hasprova
Hernish Hingis Hirko
Holic Homaa Homza
Hoza Hradok Hrbaty
Hreha Hromec Hubschmanova
Hudecek Huncik Hurta
Husarova Iglar Ilyko
Jacko Jacosova Jancso
Janochik Janocko Jascenscak
Jerdonek Jurista Jurkovic
Jurova Kallok Kankula
Karas Karauskas Kasarda
Kasmarek Katrinak Keblovski
Kinder Klimova Kmet
Komarek Komarekova Kompus
Kondrick Konelk Konopka
Kopchak Kopraly Kornfeld
Kostick Kotlyar Kovac
Kovalcin Kozak Kozlej
Kral Kraynak Krispinsky
Krlic Krolyak Kroslak
Krupjak Krysiek Kubek
Kucera Kucharik Kukucka
Kundrat Kundrick Kusnir
Kusnirak Lanka Lapikas
Lavenjak Lavrince Lazarak
Lescak Leyba Lindner
Lindushka Liptovska Lisik
Lizanich Lohena Lopuchovsky
Loran Lubarskiij Lyach
Macek Maco Macuga
Maczik Majer Majerski
Malenko Malinyak Mankovich
Mann Marcek Marcenko
Marcincsinova Marszalek Martzinova
Maskala Matalik Matis
Matiz Meciar Meduna
Meerdo Mehlfarber Mehold
Mejer Melioris Mensik
Mihok Mihokova Mikeska
Minarikova Mirda Misik
Mlakar Molnar Moravcova
Morovacova Moskorinz Mudrak
Musil Nachtnubel Nagyova
Nanias Nemec Noga
Novakova Novotny Olah
Orgovanova Orlik Pagac
Panchura Pastova Pataki
Pavlacka Pavliscak Pehanich
Pekarek Pellar Penza
Perzel Petreasz Petrick
Petrulyak Piasecki Piskura
Piszczor Plichta Pojedinec
Pokrosova Porubiak Postova
Prexta Prutz Ralbovsky
Relovsky Repasky Repcsak
Romanyak Rusenko Rusnak
Ruzin Salamon Salar
Santa Schoenberger Scuka
Semanic Semenik Shebena
Shigo Siba Sikora
Sikorov Simko Sipko
Sirak Sisitka Skandera
Slovensky Smik Smitala
Smithula Smolenak Snacker
Sobotik Sokol Sovic
Srebotnik Stanya Stasko
Stepko Stofa Stofan
Stoffey Stofka Stokosa
Strelec Strelecz Strelety
Strelick Subrick Sucha
Surilla Svicek Svorada
Szakalski Szanetrik Szedmaky
Szibjak Sziszak Szop
Talyascak Tasar Telek
Terpak Tkac Tomaskovic
Tomco Tomondi Toth
Trop Trope Troppova
Tuszak Tutka Vacek
Vach Vajda Vanecko
Varchol Varcolik Varga
Varhola Vasicak Vavrisova
Velkabardejov Velosin Venko
Virosztko Viskup Vodzak
Wadja Walent Wargo
Warhola Wdowiak Weinerova
Welosin Wepperyova Wira
Wrabelcak Yuraszovski Yurkovic
Zavacsky Zbihley Zelenjcik
Zelina Zeliznak Zeman
Zendak Zvara  

Czechoslovakian Surnames

These surnames were collected before the country separated into the Czech and Slovak Republics. Male ending -ov, female -ova, Havel becomes Havlova.

Aghov Alesh Balbin
Balog Banyas Barov
Basch Benakov Bendzar
Benes Berman Bironov
Blachut Bobkova Borovsky
Borsky Brauner Budzak
Busa Butala Capov
Chabra Chehachkov Chuchiak
Czermak Czernin Daschl
Demko Dlask Dobak
Dobrovsky Drahomir Drobkov
Drobny Dubcek Dyk
Fetsko Fizely Flaishman
Fucik Gabriel Galushka
Gnaly Goradz Gura
Haas Hacha Hajossyov
Havel Havlicek Havlichek
Hlinka Homma Horenitzka
Hornacek Hroch Hrubin
Hus Ilencik Janacek
Janda Jelenovicz Jezil
Jiriczek Kafka Kalish
Kalousek Kautsky Klein
Kleinova Klima Knapp
Kochman Kölcsey Kollar
Kondis Korda Korecho
Koscelek Kovarikov Kramar
Krasa Krisco Krizan
Kucej Kundera Kunzo
Kutcher Labik Langrova
Lendl Liba Loebl
Macala Machotkov Maczny
Makara Malek Manchulenko
Mandlikova Maska Matice
Mecir Mikusa Mistivoj
Moravec Muzik Navotny
Navratil(ova) Nejedly Nimek
Novacek Novak Ochman
Palachy Panchisin Panku
Pavelka Pavlovich Perczian
Peregrim Petrov Phachek
Pinkas Prochazka Raab
Radobrano Richterova Rieger
Rozim Samulka Simenov
Simkov Slanzky Smetana
Soucek Soukupov Spacek
Stein Studenikova Stur
Suk(ova) Svoboda Szader
Tikalov Trojan Tyrpak
Uhrin Ulihrach Ullman
Valencik Vasek Velicky
Vilkova Vodick Vogler
Vörösmarty Vosper Wartski
Wasecko Weiching Wetter
Yuric Zadarla Zapotocky
Zaturetsky Zbojovsky Zelezny


Southeast Poland, Northeast Slovakia, Transcarpathian Oblast of Ukraine, Romania,Yugoslavia

Andrejko Babinchak Bacisin
Banyas Bartne Bartusiak
Bobola Boruch Boryk
Bosek Bresczak Brezina
Buchko Burcak Chelak
Choleva Chornock Chura
Chvalik Chymicz Cicvara
Crura Csanda Csornyak
Cuprak Cuprisin Czarnecka
Daktyzo Danelak Dranchak
Dubyak Dudinyak Dudra
Fedinatz Fedorko Fencik
Fleegel Gadela Gazo
Gyba Hoblak Holeva
Humeniuk Huriatiak Hutnyan
Janocyk Joppa Katchmarik
Kitchura Kongelka Kostik
Kosuik Kozej Krulock
Kruyak Krynica Kuczyn
Kurzawaska Kuzmycz Lazor
Lebo Lemak Leschinskie
Madegska Madzik Medvigy
Memorich Memovich Milly
Misichko Muretski Murnak
Murniak Mushynka Novitski
Osifchin Paduchowicz Petrisko
Petryczanko Pindjar Pindyar
Pinjar Plahovinscak Plavchak
Pohorilak Pritiskatck Prokopczaak
Racine Roman Rudawska
Rudowski Sadloch Sarnowska
Sawczak Scerba Scura
Sefchik Seplevcsak Sinovich
Sochor Sokol Spak
Spilar Stefanisin Sudyk
Surig Sweedquist Sztanko
Szubiak Tomasovsky Tomcik
Tomko Troyan Tylicz
Tyliych Volk Wardigo
Winiarska Wolsonowicz Worhacz
Yakubic Yanosy Youpa
Zarecki Zavaczky Zaverach
Zawieracz Zawojski Zozula
Zrbny Zuzulya  


Goncher Grozik Grozika
Jacobek Jouett Kloc
Lucien Lucin Madelski,
Maduzia Polka Ruszczak
Sarduga Siwek Szumowicz

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