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Ireland

History

The early peoples of Ireland were assimilated relatively peacefully by the Celts or Gaels by the C3rd BC. Many Irish Celtic legends contain stories which could relate to this period. Gaelic Ireland was divided into kingdoms whose leaders were elected according to tribal or Brehon law. They were under the nominal leadership of the Ardri or High King but were usually fighting amongst themselves.

Ireland, or Hibernia, did not become part of the Roman Empire but after the Romans left Britain, many of the Scots, then a people of Ireland, migrated to Pictish Caledonia, which became known as Scotland, and Wales. St Patrick introduced Christianity in around 432 AD and Ireland was largely Christian by AD 600, although the Celtic church was separate from that of Rome initially. The two foundations used different dating systems which led to the confusions addressed by the Synod of Whitby. Celtic missionaries were instrumental in Christianising the Germanic peoples who had taken over from the Romans in the rest of Britain and Europe and their monasteries provided a focus for many of the Viking raids from the end of the C8th onwards.

The Norwegians established several bases in Ireland including Dublin, founded by 841, and held most of the major ports. The Irish themselves were socially and politically divided and were slow to develop their own towns although they were in political control of some of the Norwegian ones inland. Brian Boru, king from 976, defeated the Danes at Clontarf in 1014 but a further threat came from the Normans who had conquered Saxon England in 1066. Anglo-Norman adventurers invaded Ireland in 1167 and Henry II managed to obtain a precarious foothold in Ireland in 1171 but English territory was confined to the Pale (the area around Dublin). By 1215, the entire eastern coast (Ulster, Meath, Leinster) was under Norman control with Connaught added by 1235. By the early C14th, the Irish lands included less than half the country such as Desmond (the south-west point of the island) and Tirconnell and Tirowen to the north-west.

Irish resistance continued and the Kingdom of Ireland was established in 1541 including all lands ‘beyond the Pale’. Under the Tudors and early Stuarts, the English pursued a policy of conquest, plantation by English settlers and they imposed their language and church Reformation upon Ireland. The most important plantation was that of Ulster in 1610. The Irish took advantage of the conflict between Charles I and his Parliament to revolt but were crushed by Oliver Cromwell in 1449 and the estates of all rebels were confiscated. The English Republic (1649-60) of Oliver Cromwell reduced the independence of Ireland and Scotland to give the British Isles their first unified government but this did not survive the restoration of the monarchy under Charles II. Another revolt in 1689-91 was put down by the Protestant William of Orange (King Billy) and the Roman Catholic majority was oppressed by penal laws. A third of the population of about 1.5 million died in the famine of 1739-41. Further fighting during the C18th led to Ireland becoming part of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The Irish parliament was subordinated to the English one and Irish economic interests were eclipsed by those of England, leading to the rise of a Protestant patriot party. In 1782, it forced the English government to remove many commercial restrictions and allow an independent Irish parliament. There was another revolt in 1798, inspired by the French Revolution but this was put down.

In 1800, the English Prime Minister, William Pitt, brought in the Act of Union which brought Ireland under the British crown. Daniel O'Connell founded the Catholic Association in 1823 to campaign for Catholic political rights. He became MP for Country Clare in 1828 and forced Parliament to give Catholics the right to sit in Parliament. The Catholic Emancipation Act was passed in 1829. The Industrial Revolution had little influence, leaving Ireland as one of the poorest countries in Europe. Much of the country was ruled by absentee English landlords, many of whom had little or no interest in the welfare of their tenants. Emigration (forced and voluntary) and the famine of 1846-51 made Ireland the only country in Europe whose population actually fell during the C19th. In 1850, the Irish Franchise Act increased the number eligible to vote from 61 000 to 165 000. The Fenian Brotherhood was formed in 1858 but its insurrection failed in 1867. The Church of Ireland was disestablished in 1869.

The movement for home rule gathered strength with the formation of the Home Government Association (Home Rule League) by the Protestant, Isaac Butt, in 1870. Home Rule won 59 seats in Parliament in 1874 and a policy of obstruction was adopted. In 1880, Charles Stuart Parnell became leader of the Home Rulers who were dominated by Catholic groups. There was a series of 'Boycotts' against landlords who would not agree to fair rents. The Land Act, which provided greater security for tenants was greeted with hostility, Parnell was imprisoned in 1881 and the 'No Rent' movement began. Conciliation was agreed under the Kilmainham Treaty in 1882 but Chief Secretary Cavendish and Under Secretary Burke were murdered in Phoenix Park, Dublin. The Franchise Reform of 1885 gave the Home Rulers 85 seats in parliament and there was a balance between the Liberals and Tories. Liberal leader Gladstone supported the Home Rule Bill but it was rejected by Parliament in 1885 and 1886. The Home Rule movement was divided when Parnell was cited in a divorce case in 1890 and the Second Home Rule Bill was defeated in 1893. The Gaelic League was founded the same year and the Irish Nationalist were reunited under Redmond in 1900 with 82 MPs elected. Sinn Fein was founded by Arthur Griffin in 1902.

In 1906, the Nationalists rejected a Bill for devolution of power to Ireland and in 1910, Unionist opposition to Home Rule was led by Sit Edward Carson. The Home Rule Bill for the whole of Ireland was introduced in 1912 and the Protestants formed the Ulster Volunteers in protest. The Bill was defeated in the Lords but this was overridden although the First World War delayed its implementation. In the south, the Catholics founded the Irish Volunteers in 1913. In 1914, the Nationalists were persuaded to exclude Ulster from the Bill for six years but this was rejected by Carson. The Curragh mutiny brought the reliability of English troops against Protestants into doubt. There was extensive gun-running by both sides and in 1916, the Easter Rising by the Irish Republican Brotherhood was suppressed and its leaders executed. The Irish Republican Army (IRA) was formed in 1919 and from 1919-22, there was a violent guerrilla war between the Irish nationalists and the British. The settlement of 1921 retained largely Protestant Ulster under British rule and made the rest of the country a dominion of the Empire. There were further conflicts between radicals and moderates within the Irish Free State until 1923.

Republic of Ireland (Eire)

Capital : Dublin

Size: 27100 sq m Popn: 3 547 000

Counties Carlow, Cavan, Clare, Connacht, Cork, Donegal, Dublin, Galway, Kerry, Kildare, Kilkenny, Leinster (Laois), Leitrim, Limerick, Longford, Louth, Mayo, Meath, Monaghan, Munster, Offaly, Roscommon, Sligo, Tipperary, Waterford, Westmeath, Wexford, Wicklow

Southern Ireland became formally known as the Irish Free State in 1921. It was accepted by IRA leader Michael Collins but not by many of his colleagues who joined Fianna F« il under Eamon de Valera. Collins was killed in the ensuing civil war and the partition was not acknowledged until 1937 when a new constitution established the country as the sovereign state of Eire but the IRA continued to campaign for a united Ireland. In 1949, Eire left the Commonwealth and declared itself a Republic.

Fianna F« il held office for over 40 years until it was defeated in 1973 and Liam Cosgrave formed a coalition between Labour and Fine Gael. Fianna F« il returned to power under Jack Lynch in 1977. IRA activity intensified in 1979 with the killing of Earl Mountbatten in Ireland and 18 British soldiers in Northern Ireland. Lynch resigned later that year and was succeeded by Charles Haughey, whose aim was a united Ireland with considerable independence for the six northern counties. After the 1981 election, a coalition was formed between Fine Gael, under Garret FitzGerald, and Labour but it resigned in 1982 after its budget proposals were defeated. Haughey returned to office with a minority government but resigned later that year and FitzGerald returned.

In 1983, all the main political parties in Northern Ireland and the Republic initiated the New Ireland Forum but its report was rejected by the Conservative British government of Margaret Thatcher. In 1985, discussions between London and Dublin led to the signing of the Anglo-Irish Agreement which provided for regular consultation and exchange of information regarding cross-border matters and stated that the status of Northern Ireland would not be changed without the agreement of the majority of its people. It was criticized by Unionist politicians in Northern Ireland who wanted it rescinded. FitzGerald's coalition ended in 1986 and Fianna F« il and Charles Haughey returned after the 1987 election.

Disagreements over extradition procedures led to worsening relations with the UK in 1988. Haughey did not gain a majority in the 1989 elections and formed a coalition with the Progressive Democrats, a breakaway party from Fianna F« il. In November 1990, Brian Lenihan, who had been dismissed a deputy prime minister, was defeated in the presidential election by Mary Robinson who had left-wing backing. Alan Dukes resigned as leader of Fine Gael and was replaced by the right-wing John Bruton. The PD leader, Desmond O'Malley withdrew from the coalition in January 1992 after Haughey was accused of illegal 'phone-tapping. Haughey lost his parliamentary majority and resigned as prime minister and Fianna F« il leader. He was succeeded by Albert Reynolds who reconstructed the cabinet with Bertie Ahern as finance minister and David Andrews as foreign minister. Ireland approved the Maastricht Treaty on European union in a referendum in June 1992 by 69% of a turnout of 57%. Reynolds campaigned hard for the treaty because he felt that it was essential to the economy for Ireland to retain close links with the EC.

Northern Ireland (Ulster)

Main city : Belfast

Counties Antrim, Londonderry, Fermanagh, Tyrone, Armagh, Down

Ulster originally included Donegal, Cavan and Monaghan but they became part of the Irish Free State, now the Republic of Ireland.

Districts Antrim, Ards, Armagh, Ballymena, Ballymoney, Banbridge, Belfast, Carrickfergus, Castlereagh, Coleraine, Cookstown, Down, Dungannon, Fermanagh, Larne, Limavady, Lisburn, Londonderry, Lurgan/Craigavon, Magherafelt, Moyle, Newry and Mourne, Newtownabbey, North Down, Omagh, Strabane

The mainly Protestant counties of Ulster withdrew from the Irish Free State in 1921. The IRA continued to protest against this and the Northern Ireland Civil Rights Association was set up in 1967 to press for the equal treatment of the Roman Catholic minority. In 1968-9, serious disturbances arose in protest at Protestant political dominance and discrimination against Catholics in employment and housing. British troops were sent in to restore peace and protect Catholics but the disturbances continued. In 1969, election results weakened Terence O'Neil's Unionist government and further rioting led to the call-up of the Protestant-based B-Specials to the Royal Ulster Constabulary which was later disarmed and the B-Specials replaced by the non-sectarian Ulster Defence Regiment. The IRA became divided into the 'official' and 'provisional' wings and the first British soldier was killed in 1971.

O'Neil was replaced by Chicester-Clark who resigned in 1971 and was replaced by Brian Faulkner. The IRA stepped up its bombing campaign and in 1972, the British Army killed 13 demonstrators in Londonderry on 'Bloody Sunday'. The parliament at Stormont was prorogued and superseded by direct rule from Westminster. During 1974, an attempt at power-sharing between Protestant and Catholic groups failed and the IRA bombing was extended to the UK mainland with fatal incidents in Guildford and Birmingham. In 1976, the British Ambassador to Dublin was assassinated and Betty Williams and Mairead Corrigan founded the Peace Movement. The INLA killed British MP Airey Neave at the House of Commons in 1978.

In 1980, Margaret Thatcher and Charles Haughey met to discuss a peaceful settlement but Republican prisoners in pursuit of political status started 'dirty protests' and hunger strikes which led to the deaths of Bobby Sands and Francis Hughes in 1981. The Anglo-Irish Intergovernmental Council was formed and in 1982, the Northern Ireland Assembly was created to devolve legislation and executive powers to the province but was boycotted by the SDLP (19%) and Sinn Fein (10%). 1984 saw a series of reports by various groups on the future of the province. The IRA continued its campaign with the bombing of the Conservative Party Conference at Brighton. A second Anglo-Irish Intergovernmental Council meeting agreed to oppose violence and co-operate on security but Britain rejected proposals of confederation or joint sovereignty. Margaret Thatcher and Garret Fitzgerald met at Hillsborough in 1985 and made the Anglo-Irish Agreement but this was regarded as a sell-out by the Unionists. Protests and strikes followed, including violence against the police and the boycotting of Westminster by the 12 Ulster MPs. They gave up their seats so that the by-elections could be fought as a kind of referendum on the views of the province. The Northern Ireland assembly was dissolved by the UK government after a similar boycotting in 1986. Although job discrimination was made illegal in 1975, in 1987 Catholics were two and a half times more likely to be unemployed than Protestants

Eire approved the extradition clauses of the Agreement in 1987 but the IRA continued its bombing with incidents at a British Army base in West Germany and the Remembrance Day service at Enniskillen. In 1988, security forces in Gibralter killed three IRA bombers which caused protests. The Guildford Four were released in 1990 when their convictions were ruled unsound by the Court of Appeal. The convictions of the 'Birmingham Six' were also questioned and sent to the court of Appeal. The Anglo-Irish Agreement was threatened when Eire refused extraditions in 1990 and in 1991, the IRA renewed its campaign on the UK mainland with an attempt on a cabinet meeting in Downing Street and incidents at mainline stations and explosions at Bishopsgate, London and other cities in 1993. In 1991, the first direct talks between the political parties for sixteen years were held in Belfast, laying foundations for a dialogue between the British government and the main Northern Irish parties.

Irish Names

Celtic Names

Although some Celtic names, mostly those of saints, remained part of the common stock, it is only in recent decades that the revival of interest in the culture and traditions of the Celtic peoples has led to Welsh, Irish, Scottish, and Cornish names being used more frequently in English speaking countries.

Male

Aidan 'little fiery one'
Adan Aden Adian
Adin Aedan Aydan
Ayden Aydin Edden

Brendan 'brandr' - 'swordblade' or Germanic 'Brandolf' - 'swordwolf'
Breandan Breandon Bren
Brenden Brendene Brendin
Brendine Brendis Brendon
Brenn Brenndan Brenton

Brandon/Brennan (surname forms)
Brandan Branddon Branden
Brandin Brandone Brandonn
Brandun Brandyn Branen
Brannan Branndan Brannden
Branndon Brannon Branon
Breannan Brenan Brennen
Brennin Brennon Brenon
Brynden Bryndon Bryndyn
Brynnen

Brian 'brigh' - 'strength' or 'bruaich' - 'hill/steep'
Brain Brayan Brayon
Bri Briano Brien
Briny Brion Bryam
Bryan Bryen Bryn
Brynn Bryon

Calum/Colm Gaelic form of 'Columba' - 'dove'
Caelum Cahlum Callam
Callum Calym Kalem
Kallum

Connor/Connory
Conaire Conary Connar
Conner Conor Conroy
Conry Kohn Konnar
Konner Konnor Konor

Corin 'Corrigan' - 'spearman'? Greek fem 'Corinna' or Lat Quirinus
Corrin Corryn Korihn
Korin Korrin

Diarmuid 'Diarmait' - 'free from envy'
Dermod Dermot Dermott
Diarmid

Duane 'Dubhan' - 'little dark one'
Dawayne Dawyne Deune
Dewayne Doane Du'aine
Duain Duaine Duana
Duwain Duwan Duwane
Duwayn Duwayne Dwain
Dwaine Dwan Dwane
Dwayne Dwon Dwyane
Dywane

Fergus 'man-strength'
Fearghas Fearghus Feargus
Ferg Fergie

Finian 'fionn' - 'fair'
Fin Finn Finnian
Finnie Finnis Finny
Fionan Fionn Fynn
Phinean Phinian

Flann 'red'
Flainn Flan Flanna
Flannan Flannery

Garrett form of Germanic 'Gerald'
Gared Garet Garett
Garhett Garodd Garrad
Garrat Garratt Garred
Garret Garrett Garrett
Garrette Garrit Garrod
Gerret Gerrett Gerrit
Gerrit Gerritt Gerrot
Gerrott

Kalen 'Kellen' - 'warrior'?
Kaile Kailean Kailen
Kailer Kalan Kallan
Kelonn Kheelan Kellen

Kellan/Killian
Kael Kaelan Kaelen
Kaelin Kaelyn Kail
Kailan Kailen Kailin
Kalan Kalen Kalin
Kallan Kallen Kallin
Kallon Kallun Kalon
Kalun Kalyn Kaylan
Kaylen Kaylin Kaylon
Kaylyn Keelan Keelen
Keelian Keilan Keillan
Kellen Kellin Kellon
Kelynn Keylan Keylen
Kialen Kilan Kilean
Kilen Kilian Killie
Killy Kilon Kylan
Kylen Kylin

Kermit form of Dermot/Diarmuid?
Kermey Kermie Kermy

Kevin 'Caoimhin' - 'handsome'
Cavan Caven Cavin
Cavinh Kavan Kavy
Kavyn Keevin Keevon
Kervin Kervyn Kev
Kevan Keve Keven
Keveon Kevernee Kevin
Kevinn Kevins Kevion
Kevis Kevn Kevon
Kevron Kevvy Kevyn
Kevynn Kyvon Tevin?

Kian 'cian' - 'ancient'
Cein Cian Cianan
Kian Kiante Kyan

Kieran 'Ciaran' a diminutive of 'ciar' - 'dark/black'
Cearo? Keiran Keirdan
Kern Kernan Keuren
Kieren Kierian Kiernan
Kieron Kierre Kierrez
Kyran Kyren Kyron

Oran 'odhar' - 'pale green' or Hebrew 'oren' - 'pine tree'
Odhran Odran Ora
Orane Oren Orin
Oris Orono Orran
Orren Orrin

Patrick from Latin 'patricius' - 'patrician' (Saint's name)
Paddey Paddie Paddy
Paden Padraic Paidyn
Pat Patric Patrik
Patrique Patrizius Patryk
Pats Patsy

Ronan 'seal'
Renan Ronat

Sean cognate of John
Schon Schonn Seaghan
Seanan Seann Senae
Shaan Shai'ahn Shaine
Shane Shaughan Shaun
Shawen Shawn Shawne
Shawnee Shawnn Shawon
Shayn Shayne Shohn
Shon Shouan Shoun
Shuwn Sion Voshon?

Female

Aileen/Eileen 'Eibhlin' a form of Evelyn
Aila Ailean Aileenah
Ailene Aili Ailina
Ailinn Ayla Aylana
Ayleana Aylee Ayleen
Aylene Aylie Aylin
Eilean Eilena Eilene
Eiley Eilleen Eillen
Eilyn Eleen Elene
Ileana Ileen Ilene
Ilennis Iliana Ilianne

Aisling/Ashling 'dream/vision'
Aislinn Ashlan Ashleann
Ashleen Ashleene Ashlen
Ashlene Ashliann Ashlianne
Ashlin Ashline Ashlyn
Ashlyne Ashlynn Ashlynne
Isleen

Alina form of Aileen or Adeline?'
Aleana Aleany Aleen
Aleena Aleene Alena
Alene Alenna Aliana
Aliene Alinaa Aline
Alline Allyn Allyna
Allyne Alyn Alyna
Alyne Alynne

Arlene 'pledge'?
Ahleena Arla Arlana
Arleen Arlen Arlena
Arlenis Arleyne Arliene
Arlina Arlinda Arline
Arlis Arlyn Arlyne
Arlynn

Brenda Celtic branr - sword'? Shetland name used as feminine form of Brendan
Breena Breenna Breina
Bren Brena Brena
Brendette Brendie Brenie
Brenin Brenn Brenna
Brennah Brennaugh Brina
Brina

Bridget/Bedelia 'brigh' - 'strength', 'briganti' - 'high one''
Bedeelia Beret Berget
Bergette Bergit Biddy
Bidelia Birgit Birgita
Birgitta Breeda Bride
Bridey Bridger Bridgete
Bridgett Bridgette Bridgid
Bridgit Bridgitt Bridgitte
Bridgot Bridie Brigada
Briget Brigette Briggitte
Brighid Brigid Brigit
Brigita Brigitta Brita
Brydie Gitta

Cailin form of Caitlin?
Caelan Cailan Caileen
Caileine Cailene Cailine
Cailon Cailyn Cailynn
Cailynne Calin Caylan
Cayleen Caylin Cayline
Caylne Caylyn Caylyne
Caylynne

Caitlin from Greek 'Katherine'
Cait Caitlan Caitland
Caitlandt Caitleen Caitlen
Caitlene Caitlin Caitline
Caitlinn Caitlon Caitlyn
Caitlynn Caitlynne Catelyn
Catelynn Catlee Catleen
Catleene Catlin Catlyn
Catlynn Catlynne Caytlin
Caytlyn Kaatlain Kaetlin
Kaetlyn Kaetlynn Kaetlynne
Kaitalyn Kaiteland Kaitelynn
Kaitelynne Kaitlan Kaitland
Kaitlee Kaitleen Kaitlen
Kaitlin Kaitlind Kaitlinn
Kaitlon Kaitlym Kaitlyn
Kaitlynn Kaitlynne Katalin
Katalynn Kateellen Katelan
Kateland Kateleen Katelen
Katelene Katelin Katelind
Katelinn Katelun Katelyn
Katelyne Katelynn Katelynne
Katielyn Katilin Katilynn
Katlaina Katland Katleyn
Katlin Katlyn Katlynd
Katlyne Katlynn Katlynne
Kayelyn Kayetlyn Kaytelyn
Kaytelynne Kaytlen Kaytlin
Kaytlyn Kaytlynn

Colleen Irish word for 'girl'
Coleen Colena Colene
Colina Colinda Coline
Colleene Collen Collene
Collina Colline

Deirdre Old Irish 'derdriu' - 'young girl' or Celtic 'diedre' - 'fear'
Dedra Deedra Deedre
Deedrea Deedrie Deerdra
Deidra Deidre Deidrie
Deiondrey Deirdree Diedra
Diedre Dierdra Dierdre
Dierdrie

Doreen 'Doireann' - 'sullen' or from 'Dorothy'
Dorean Dorinnia Dorren
Dorene Doran

Fallon
Falan Faleen Falen
Falena Falene Falin
Falina Faline Fallan
Fallonne Falon Falyn
Falynn Falynne Faullenn
Felina?

Fionnghuala Gaelic 'white shoulders'
Fenelia Fenella Fenula
Finella Finola Finula
Fionnuala Fionnula

Kathleen cognate of Greek 'Katherine'
Cataleen Catalena Catalene
Catalin Catalyn Catalyna
Cateline Cathaleen Cathaline
Catheleen Cathelin Cathelina
Cathelyn Cathleana Cathleen
Cathlene Cathleyn Cathlin
Cathlyn Cathlyne Catlaina
Catlina Kataleena Katalia
Katalyn Kathaleen Kathalene
Kathileen Kathlene Kathlyn
Kathlynn Kathlynne Katleen
Katlin Katlyn Katlynn

Keara 'black/dark'
Kayra Keaira Keara
Kearia Kearra Keera
Keeri Keerra Keira
Keirra Kera Keraya
Kieara Kiera Kierah
Kierana Kieranna Kierea
Kierra Kiia Kiri
Kirra Kyera Kyira
Kyra Kyrah Kyrene
Kyria Kyriah Kyriann
Kyrie

Kyla from surname/placename 'Kyle'?
Khyla Kial Kila
Kilana? Kylah Kyle

Maureen cognate of Mary
Maura Maure Maurene
Maurine Mo Moreen
Morena Morene Morreen
Moureen

Meave 'Meadhbh' either 'joy' or 'great'
Mab Maeve Maevi
Maevy Maive Mayve

Moira 'mor' - 'great' or cognate of Mary
Moirae Moirah Moire
Moya Moyra Moyrah

Mona Muadhnait from 'muadh'
Moina Monah Mone
Monea Monna Moyna

Muriel 'Muirgheal' - 'sea bright'
Muireal Murial Muriell
Murielle

Myrna 'Muirne' - 'beloved'
Merna Mirna Morna
Muirna

Niamh 'bright'
Neiva Neva Neve
Nevein Nevena Nevia
Nevin Nevina Nevsa
Neyva Nieve Nivena

Noreen from Latin 'Honora'
Noreena Noren Norene
Norina Norine Nureen?

Oona 'famine/hunger' or 'uan' - lamb'?
Ona Onna Onnie
Oonagh Oonie Ownah

Shauna cognate of Jane
Sawna Shaun Shauna
Shaunah Shaune Shaunea
Shaunee Shauni Shaunie
Shaunna Shaunya Shawn
Shawna Shawnae Shawnai
Shawne Shawnea Shawnee
Shawni Shawnie Shawnna

Sheelagh/Sheila cognate of 'Cecilia'
Seel Seelia Seil
Seila Sela Selia
Selie Shealee Shealy
Sheela Sheelah Sheilagh
Sheilah Sheileen Sheiletta
Sheilia Sheillyn Sheilya
Shela Shelagh Shelah
Shelan Shelanda Shelia
Sheyla Shiela Sile

Sheena cognate of Jean/Jane
Seanna Seinna Sheana
Sheann Sheanna Sheanta
Sheaon Sheenagh Sheenah
Sheenan Sheeneal Sheenie
Sheenika Sheenna Sheina
Sheindel Shena Shene
Shenea Shi Shina
Shine Shineeca Shineese
Shinelle Shinequa Shineta
Shiniqua Shinita Shynia

Sinead cognate of Jane
Shenada Sheneda

Siobhan cognate of Joan
Chavauna Chavon Chavonn
Chavonna Chevaonna Chevon
Chevonn Schavon Schevon
Shavan Shavana Shavanna
Shavaughna Shavaun Shavawan
Shavon Shavona Shavonda
Shavondra Shavonna Shavonne
Shavonni Shavontae Shavonte
Shavoun Sheavon Shevaun
Shevon Shevonda Shevone
Shevonne Shibahn Shibani
Shibhan Shioban Shiobhan
Shivani Shivaun Shivawn
Shivonne Shobana Shobha
Shobhana Shyvon Shyvonne
Siobahn Siobhana Siobhann
Siobhon Siovaun Siovhan

Irish Surnames

Surnames were not used in Ireland until about the C10th. Originally, they consisted of a patronymic with the father’s name preceded by ‘Mac’, son, or the grandfather’s name preceded by ‘O’ (originally ‘Ui’, grandson) for a male. These prefixes could also be followed by the title or occupation of the father or grandfather. The ‘O’ element was dropped by many Connaught families after the Cromwellian settlement but is retained by the gentry as a mark of distinction. Women originally used ‘ingen’ or ‘daughter of’ but this later became ‘nighean’ and was shortened to ‘ni’.

With the spread of Christianity, bynames incorporating ‘giolla’ or ‘maol’ (follower or devotee) developed. These are generally found in the forms ‘Gil-‘ or ‘Mul-‘ in modern Irish surnames. Others surnames originate amongst the various peoples who settled in Ireland such as the Vikings, Normans (invaded in 1171), Scots (Plantation of Ulster, 1611) and English (Cromwellian Settlement, 1650s).

British rule also led to the anglicising of many names and often the prefixes ‘O’ and ‘Mac’ were abandoned. Names were changed to those sounding similar in English or were direct translations of the original Gaelic.

Modern and Anglicised Forms

Old Irish Forms

Meanings

Adair    
Addis    
Agnew    
Ahearn, Ahern, Aherne O'Echtighearn  
Aird    
Aitken    
Anglum    
Antisdel    
Armitage, Armytage, Armidage, Armedy O'Airmeadhaigh  
Athey    
Auchinlek    
Autrey    
Baggett    
Bain    
Baird    
Ball    
Ballagh    
Ballantyne    
Bambrick    
Banan, Bannan, Bannon, O'Bannen O'Banain  
Banff, Hogg, Hogge Mac an Bhainbh  
Barde    
Barken    
Barkey    
Barret, Barrett    
Barrington, Barron? O'Barrain  
Barry, Berry   Norman 'de Barri'
Battle    
Bean, Gilwaine, (White) MacGilli-Bhain  
Beatty    
Begg, Beggs    
Begley, Bagley    
Behan, Beahan    
Beirne    
Bernnan    
Berrigan    
Bestick    
Beyers    
Biggar, Begar, Bera O'Bearga  
Binchy    
Binsley    
Bird    
Blair, Blaire    
Blevins    
Blighe O'Blighe  
Blow    
Boehn    
Bohan    
Boland O'Beollain  
Bolger    
Bonner    
Boone    
Boran, Boren, Borin, Boring, Bouring    
Bouey, Boughy, Boey    
Bourns, Burns O'Conboirne, MacConboirne  
Bowler    
Boyce    
Boyd, Boyde    
Boylan    
Boyle, O'Boyle, Beahilly, Beale, Beatley O'Baetheghaile  
Braden, Bradin    
Bradley    
Brady O’Bradaigh? descendant of Bradach
Brahan O'Brachain  
Brangan, Brannigan    
Brann    
Bray O'Breadhdha  
Brazael, Brazil    
Breen, McBreen O'Breen  
Brennan, Brenan, Brennen O Braonain, O’Braoinain Desc of Braonain 'sorrow'?
Breslin, Brislane O'Brislain  
Bresnahan    
Brickin MacGilli Briein  
Broder, Bradner, Brothers O'Bruadair  
Brodie, Brody, Brodiff O'Broduibh  
Brogan O'Brogain  
Brophy, Broghie O'Breithe  
Brosnahan, Brosnan    
Bruen, Brune, Bruin O'Birn  
Brynes    
Brynnock    
Buggy    
Burk, Burke, Bourke, Burge   Norman French 'de Burgh'
Burnes, Burns, Byrne, Byrnes, Byrns (Lester, Lyster, Warren) O'Burn, O'Byrne, O Broin Desc of Broin
Cadden    
Cadogan    
Cady    
Callaghan, Callahan, Calahan, O'Callaghan O'Kelaghan

O'Ceallachain

 
Callan, Callanan, Callinan    
Camden, Caden O'Camdhain  
Canavan, Canovan    
Cannan, Cannon, Kanan?, McCannon    
Canty    
Carey, Cary, Carrie O'Ciardha descendant of the Dark One
Carlin    
Carmichael    
Carney    
Carolan, O'Carolan O Cearbhall« in  
Carton, MacCarton    
Carvel    
Casey, O'Casey O'Cathasaigh desc of Cathasach 'watchful'
Cash, Kilcash MacGilla Chaise  
Cashion    
Caskey    
Cass    
Casserly    
Cassidy O’Caiside  
Catny, Kane O'Caithniadh  
Cavin    
Cayley    
Childers    
Claffey    
Clancy Mac Fhlannchaidh son of Flannchadh
Cleary, Clery, Clary, Clear, O'Clery, McClary, McCleary, MacCleery O'Cleirigh Desc of the clerk
Clingan    
Cloherty    
Clohessy    
Cloony    
Close    
Clune, Clyne    
Coady, Cody    
Coakley    
Cochran, Cochrane    
Coffee, Coffey, Cowhig, Cuffe? O'Chobhthaigh, O'Cobhthaigh  
Coggins    
Coholan    
Colahan    
Colclough, Colcroft    
Coleman, Coalman O'Clumain, O'Columain  
Colgan, MacColgan    
Colley    
Collins, Collings O'Coilen  
Colvin    
Comer    
Comerford, Comsford    
Comey    
Comiskey, Comisky, Cummisky, McComish?    
Conaghan    
Conalty    
Concannon    
Condon, Condron    
Conheady    
Conklin    
Conlan, Conlin, Conlon, Colwan MacConluain  
Conn    
Connaughtan, Conattan O'Connachtain  
Conneely, Coneely, Connelly, Connole, Connolly, Conley, Conly MacConghaola, O'Conghaile  
Connel, Connell, O'Connell, O'Connel, MacConnal, McConnell O'Conaill  
Connich    
Connor, Connors, Conner, O'Conner, O'Conor, Conyers O'Conchobhair  
Conroy, Conry, Connery, Mulconrey O'Maoilchonaire  
Considine    
Conway, Convy O'Conbhuidhe

O'Conaighain

O'Connowe

 
Coogan, Cowgan O'Comhghain  
Coolacan, Coolahan O'Culaghaine  
Coonan, Quinan O'Cuanain  
Cooney    
Corbett O'Cornain  
Corcoran    
Corey, Corry, Corr    
Corkin    
Corliss    
Corner    
Cornynn    
Corrigan    
Cosby, Foote MacCosby Cos - foot
Cosgrave, Cosgriff, Cosgrove, Costello, MacOscar? O'Chosgraidh  
Costigan    
Cotter    
Cottle O'Coitil  
Cottrell    
Coughlan, Coughlin, Coglan    
Coulter    
Counagh    
Counahan, Counihan    
Cournane    
Cowley    
Coyle    
Coyne, Koin, Kean, Keane, Kane, Kain, Cain, O'Keane, O'Kane, O'kane O'Cain, O'Koin  
Cragin    
Creagh, Cregg    
Creary    
Creaven    
Creedan, Creed O'Criadhen  
Creegan, Cregan, Creagon, Crehan, Crean    
Cremen, Cremin, Cremins, Crimmins    
Cribban O'Cribbain  
Crilley, Crilly, Krily    
Croak, Croake, Croke, Croker    
Croghan    
Cronan, Cronin    
Crosbie, Crosby MacCrossan  
Crosgrove    
Crossin    
Crotty    
Crowley, Crawley    
Cruise    
Crummer    
Cuddihy, Cuddy    
Culhane, Cullen, Cullinane    
Culley, Cullie    
Culliton    
Culloty    
Cummin, Cumming, Cummins, Cummings O'Cumin  
Cunniam, Cunnion, Canning MacCoinin  
Cunniff    
Cunningham, Conyngham, Cunnigan O'Cindellain, O'Conagan, O'Conaighain, O'Connaghain, O'Congadhain  
Curley, Kirley    
Curnane    
Curran, Currin, Curren MacCarrain  
Currie, Curry, Cury, O'Curry Curoi?  
Curtin    
Curtis, Curtiss    
Cusack, Cusick    
Cushing, Cussen    
Cuskley MacGillicuskly  
Dacey    
Dagan    
Daly, Dailey, Daily, Daley. O'Daly O'Dalaigh Desc of Dalach ('assemblyman'?)
Darby    
Dardis    
Dargan    
Darmody    
Darragh    
Daunt    
Davoran    
De La Mare, Delamore    
De Loughry, Delury    
Deady    
Deahl    
Deasy    
Deeney, Deeny    
Deery    
Defferary    
Deghy    
Delahunty, Dolohanty    
Delaney, Delany    
Delvin    
Dempsey    
Dennehy, Danaher, Danahy, Danihey    
Derrick, Derrig O'Deirg  
Desmond    
DeVaney, Devaney, Devany, Duane, Duany O'Duanmhaigh  
Devereaux, Devereux, Devery    
Devine, Devinn    
Devlin    
Devrin    
Dewey    
Diamond, Dimond    
Diarmid    
Diegnan, Dignen    
Digney    
Dillon    
Dinneen    
Dissett    
Dixon O'Discin  
Doble    
Docherty, Doherty, Daugherty, Dougherty, O'Doherty    
Dockery    
Doheny    
Dolan    
Donaghue, Donoghue, Donahue, Donoho, Donohue, O'Donoghue, Donachie, Donaghy O'Donchadha, O'Donnchadha  
Donegan    
Doney, Denny O'Duineadhaigh  
Donlan, Donlin, Donlon    
Donlevy    
Donnellan, Donelan    
Donnelly O'Dunghaile  
Donovan, Donavan, O'donnovan, O'Donovan    
Doody    
Doogan, Doohan, O'Dugan    
Doolan    
Dooley    
Dooling    
Doon, Dooney    
Doraghy    
Doran, Dorrian    
Dore    
Dorgan    
Dornan    
Dorsey, Dorcey, Dorcy, Darcy, D'Arcy, Darkey, Dasse? O'Dorchaidhe  
Dowey    
Dowglas    
Dowling, Du Laing, Laing, Dulin? O'Dowling  
Downer, Downes, Downey    
Doyle, Dougill O'Dubhghaill, O Dughghaill Desc Of Dubhghall
Drew    
Driscoll, O'Driscoll    
Drohan    
Drum    
Drummond    
Duff, Duffey, Duffy   'black/dark'
Dufficy    
Duvegan, Dugan, Duggan, Duignan, Dougan, Doughan O'Duibhagain  
Drum, Drummond O'Drum  
Duhig, Duignen    
Dulleran O'Duibhleargain  
Dunkin O'Duinchinn  
Dunn, Dunne, Dun O Duinne desc of Duinn (brown)
Dunphy    
Dunwoody, Dinwiddie    
Durack, Durick, Durrick, Durrig O'Duibhraic  
Durkin Mac Dhuarcáin?  
Durning    
Dwyer, O'Dwyer    
Dyal    
Dynes    
Earles, Earley    
Egan, Eagen    
Ellig    
Eurell, Yourell    
Fagan    
Faherty, O'Faherty O'Faghartaigh  
Fahey, Fahy    
Fallon    
Fane    
Fanning    
Faricy    
Farley    
Farnan    
Farner    
Farran, Farren, Heverine O'Fhuathmharain  
Farrell, Farrall, Farrelly, Ferrell, O'Farrell O'Fearceallaighe  
Faucett, Fausset    
Fay    
Fayre, Milford O'Maoilfaghmhair  
Fealy, Feeley, Feely, Fehily, O'Feely, Pickley O'Feehily  
Fearon    
Feehan    
Feeney, Feeny O'Feinneadha  
Feennell    
Feherty    
Fennelly    
Fennessy, Finnessey    
Fenney    
Ferney    
Ferrick, Ferris, Ferry    
Fessey    
Finan, Finnin, Fynan, O'Finan O'Fionain  
Finn    
Finnegan, Finnigan O'Fionnaghain  
Finneran O'Finntigheam  
Finnerty    
Finsley    
Finucane    
Fitzgerald    
Fitzgibbon    
Fitzmaurice    
Fitzmorris    
Fitzpatrick    
Fitzsimmons, Fitzsimons    
Flaherty, O'Flaherty    
Flanagan, Flannagan, Flannigan Mag Flannagain  
Flannelly O'Flannghaile  
Flannery O'Flannabhra  
Flatly, Flatilly O'Flaitile  
Flattery O'Flaithri  
Flavin    
Flood, Floody    
Flynn, O'Flynn O'Floinn Desc of Floinn (flann - ruddy)
Fogarty    
Folan    
Foley O'Fodhladha

O'Fuala

 
Folgan    
Follis    
Foody, (Swift) O'h-Fhnadha  
Foorde, Ford    
Foote O'Trehy

MacCoshy

 
Forbes, Firbis MacFirbis  
Forhan, Foran, Fornan    
Forristal    
Foskey    
Foy    
Frawley    
Freeney    
Freethy    
Frenshe, French, Ffrench O'Fraechain  
Friel    
Friery    
(Fuller, Fowler) O'Fualairg  
Furey    
Furlong    
Furphy, Furfy    
Fursey    
Gaff, Gaffey, Gaffney    
Gaffigan    
Galbrath    
Galligan, Gallagan, Gealan, Geelan O'Gealigain  
Gallager, Gallagher, Gallaher    
Gallahue    
Gallivan    
Galvin    
Gambell, Gamble O'Maoilchluiche  
Ganly Mac Anluain  
Gannon, Ginnane Mag Fhionnain  
Gant    
Garigher    
Garr    
Garrahan    
Garvey, Garvy, McGarvey    
Garvin    
Gasaway    
Gately, Keightley, Catley O'Gathlaoich  
Gatens    
Gaughan, Gahan O'Gaibhtheachain  
Gavaghan, Gavigan    
Gavin    
Geary, Gerry, McGeary O'Gearadhain  
Gehan, Gahan, Gettins O'Gaoithin  
Genty    
Geoghan, Geoghegan, Gegan    
Geraghty, Gerrety, Garraghty, Garrett, Garritty, Heraghty, Herity, Harrington O'h-Oireachtaigh, O'h-Heraghty, MacGeraghty  
Ghaney    
Gibney    
Gielty    
Gilbride    
Gildae, Gilday, Gildea    
Gilfillon    
Gilfoyle, Guilfoyle, MacGilfoyle, Paul MacGiolla Phoil  
Gilhooly, Gilhuley    
Gillan, Gillen    
Gillespie, (Bishop) MacGiolla Easpaigh Son of the follower of the bishop
Gillham    
Gilligan, Gilgun    
Gillin    
Gillmor, Gilmer, Gilmore MacGilimir  
Gilmartin Mac Giolla Mhartain Follower of St. Martin
Gilpin, Gilfin, Gill MacGillifin  
Gilroy Mac Giolla Ruaidh 'Son Of The Red-Haired Lad’'?
Gilsenan    
Giltinan, Giltinane    
Ginnaty    
Glancey, Glansey    
Gleason, Gleeson    
Glennon, Glenin, Glinn, Gloin, Glynn O'Gloinin  
Goddan, (Godwin) O'Gadain  
Godsil    
Gogarty    
Goggin    
Gollogly, Gallogy, Ingoldsby MacGallogly

Maclnogly

 
Gorey    
Gorham    
Gorman, O'Gorman, O'Garman? O'Gormog

O'Gormghail

 
Gormilly,Gormally, Gormley, Grimley O'Goirmghiallaigh

O'Gairmleadhaigh

 
Goslin    
Gough, Goffe, Goff, McGough O'Cuaghain  
Gourley    
Governey    
Grakane    
Granard    
Graney    
Grannan    
Gratten    
Graulty    
Greaney, Greany    
Greehy    
Greeley    
Greer    
Gregan, Greghan, Grehan, Crehan, (Graham) O'Creachain  
Gregg    
Gribbin    
Griffen, Griffin, Griffy O'Griobbtha  
Guinan    
Guiney    
Gunning O'Conaing  
Gurnett    
Guthrie O'Lahiff  
Hackett    
Hadden    
Haffey    
Hafner    
Hagan, O'Hagan    
Halley, Hailey, Hale, Haley, Ally O'h-Ailche  
Haliday    
Hallahan, Halligan    
Hallinan    
Halloran, Hallaren, O'Halloran    
Halpin    
Hamill, Hammill O'h-Aghmaill  
Hand MacLave Lamh hand
Handran    
Haney    
Hanifan, Hanifin    
Hanley, Handley, Hanly, O'Handley    
Hanlin, Hanlon, O'Hanlon    
Hanna    
Hannan, Hannon    
Hannigan    
Hannity    
Hanrahan, O'Hanrahan    
Hanratty    
Haran O'h-Arain  
Harden    
Hardiman    
Harkin, Harkins    
Harney    
Harrigan    
Hart, Heart, O'Hart    
Hartigan    
Hartnett    
Harty    
Harvey    
Hatchell    
Hatty, Hetty O'h-Aidith  
Haugh, Haughee, Hoy, Hoey, Hawe, Howe O'Haughey  
Haughion O'h-Eochagain  
Hay, Hayes, Hays, Hughes O'Hay  
Heaney, Heany, Heagney? O'h-Eana  
Healey, Healy    
Heanaghan O'h-Eidhneachain  
Heasty    
Hefferman, Heffernan    
Hegarty, Hegerty, Hagerty, Haggerty    
Heggessy    
Hellam    
Hellon    
Hellowell, O'Hellowell    
Helvick, Helwick O'h-Oilmhec  
Henchion    
Henebry    
Henly, Hennley    
Henn O'h-Enda  
Hennaghan. Heneghan    
Hennessey, Hennessy, Hennesy    
Herlihy, Hurley    
Hernan, Hernon O'h-Iarnain  
Herne, Hearn, Hearne, Hurn, O'Hearn, O'Hern O'h-Eimhirin  
Heron    
Heslin    
Hetherington    
Hett    
Hickey O'hIceadha Desc of the healer
Hinchey    
Hinchion    
Hoar, Hoare    
Hoban, Hobin Muntir Ubain  
Hogan O'Hogain?  
Hoke    
Holland    
Holley, Holly    
Holligan, Holian    
Holohan, Holohan    
Horan, Hamran O'h-Uathmharain  
Horgan, O'Horrigan?    
Hough    
Houlihan    
Houneen, O'Houneen, O'Honeen, (Greene) MacUaithnin?  
Hourahane, Hourigan    
Hughes O'Aodha  
Hurley, Harley O'Hurley  
Hurst    
Hussey, Oswell O'Hease  
Hyland    
Hynes, O'Heyne O'h-Eidhin  
Ivers, Ivors, McIvor, (Howard) O'h-Iomhair, Maiomhair  
Jardan    
Kane O'Cathniadh  
Kavanagh, Kavanaugh, Kavangh, Kaveny, Cavanagh, Cavanah, Cavanaugh, Keveny, Kevin, Cowen, Cohen, Coen O'Caomhain  
Keane, Kane, Kyan, O'Keane O'Cathain  
Keaney    
Kearn, Kearns, Kearins O'Ceirin  
Kearney, Carney O'Cearnaigh  
Keary, McKeighry MagFhiachra  
Keating, Keatinge, Ceitinn O'Ceadfhada  
Keaty O'Ceathaigh  
Keedy    
Keegan, Keeghan, Cockane MacCiochain  
Keelan, Keelchan, MacCallin (Coward) MacCailleachain  
Keeler    
Keelty, Kelty, Kielty, Kilty    
Keely, Kealey, Keily, Kiely, Kaely, Cayley O'Caolloaidhe  
Keenan    
Keevan    
Kehoe    
Keirans, Kieran    
Kellahan    
Kellegher, Kelleher    
Kellett    
Kelly, Kelley, O'Kelly O'Ceallaigh, O'Ceallachai? Muintir Ceallaigh Desc of Ceallaigh (ceallach strife)
Kenehan    
Kenn, Kenna    
Kenneally, Kennealy, Keneally, Kenealy, Kennelly, Kenelly    
Kennedy O'Cinneide Ceann head, eidigh ugly
Kenney, Kenny    
Kennyon, Canning MacConin, MacCoinin  
Keohane    
Keough, Keogh, McKeough    
Kernaghan O'Cearnachain  
Kernan    
Kerr   NF
Kerrigan O'Ciaragain  
Kerrin O'Ceirin  
Kerruish    
Kevigan O'Caemhagain  
Keyes    
Kilbain    
Kilbride, Kilbridge    
Kilcullen    
Kilduff, Gilduff Mac Giolla-Duibh  
Kilfeather    
Kilgallon    
Kilgannon    
Kilgore    
Kilkelly, Killikelly Mac Giolla-Cealaigh  
Kilkenny Mac Gilla Kenny  
Killeen, Killin, Culleen O'Gilin  
Killick    
Killpatrick, Kirkpatrick? Mac Giolla Padraig Son of the follower of St. Patrick
Kilmartin    
Kilmeade    
Kinahan    
Kinealy O'Cinnfhaelaidh  
Kinnane    
Kinnavy (Bones) O'Cinnchnambha  
Kinsella    
Kirby O'Ciarmhaic  
Kirwan, Kerwin    
Kivlahen, Kivlehan    
Kneafsey    
Kyle    
Lacey, Lacy    
Laffan    
Laing    
Lalley, Lally    
Lamb, Lambe O'Luane  
Lambkin    
Lanaghan, Lanahan, Lannigan, Lanigan, Lanergan, Langan, Lannen, MacClanaghan? Mag Lannagain  
Landregan, Landrigan    
Lane, Lahan? O'Laoghain  
Lappin    
Largay    
Larkin, Larcom O'Lorcain  
Latteray    
Laughead    
LaVelle, Lavelle O'Mullaville  
Lavender    
LaVerge    
Laverty, Lafferty    
Lavery O'Labhrahadha  
Lavin    
Lavy, Laffey, Lahey?    
Law    
Lawder    
Lawless    
Lawlor, Lawler, Lalor    
Lawn    
Lawton    
Leachán, Lehan    
Leasy, Larrisy O'Learghusa  
Leavy, Levy    
Ledwich, Ledwick, Ledwidge    
Lee O'Laodhog  
Leehey, Leehy, Leahy    
Leigh, Lye MacLaighid  
Lemon    
Lenergan    
Lennon, Lannen (Leonard) O'Leannain  
Lennox    
Lenty, Lente    
Leraton    
Lester    
Liddane    
Liddy, O'Liddy Muintir Lideadha  
Liggan    
Lilly, Leach, Leech, Leitch O'Laechaille  
Linighan, Linnegan, Lenihan, Linehan    
Linnane    
Linton    
Loane, Olohan? O'Luain  
Lockhart    
Logan    
Logue    
Lomasney    
Lonergan, Londergan    
Longhan O'Lochain  
Looby, Luby    
Loody, Ludy O'Luachduibh  
Looney    
Loounane    
Lord    
Lorden    
Lorigan, Largan, Legge O'Lairgnen  
Louden    
Loughnane, Loughnam, (Loftus) O'Lachtnain  
Loughran, Loughrin    
Lowry, Lowery    
Lucey, Lucy    
Lundie    
Lundragon    
Lunney    
Lunshekaun O'Loingseachain  
Luxom O'Luachaim  
Lyden    
Lydican O'Laighdiachain  
Lydon    
Lyman    
Lynagh    
Lynam    
Lynsky, Lynch O'Loingsigh, MaGloinsg  
Lyons O'Liathain  
Lyttle, Little O'Laitile  
Macaleese    
MacAlevy    
MacAllen    
MacAllister    
MacAnally, McAnally, MacNally, McNally    
MacAndrew, McAndrew McAndrews, Andrews MacAindris  
Macaninch    
MacArdle, McArdle    
McAsey    
MacAteer, Macteer    
MacAuley, Macauley, McAuley, McCauley, McCauly, McCawley, McAuliff, McAuliffe, Macauliffe    
Macavaddy    
McAvay, McAway    
MacAvee, Kilboy, Gilboy MacGilli-Bhuidh  
MacBrehon   judge
MacBride, McBride    
McBurney    
MacCabe, McCabe    
MacCafferky, MacCafferty    
MacCaffrey, Caffrey, McCaffery, McCaffrey, Caffrey    
MacCall, McCall, Call    
McCamly    
MacCann, McCann, McCanna, MacCana?    
McCarl    
MacCarron, MacCarroon, MacCarhon, Carron, Carson, Carse? MacCarrghanma  
MacCarthy, McCarthy, MacCartney? McCarty, Carthy, Carty Mac Carthaigh Carthach loving
MacCarrick MacConcathraigh  
MacCaughan    
MacCaw    
MacCecht    
MacCiochain    
McClatchey    
McClay    
McClelland, Cleland    
MacClintock    
McClinton    
McClire    
McClory    
McClughan    
MacClumpha    
MacClure, McClure    
MacCluskey, MacCloskey, McCloskey, MacClosky, McCluskey, Closky MacBlosky  
MacCochlann    
McCollum    
____ MacConleitrech  
MacConaughey, McConaughey    
McConnville, McConville    
MacConrai    
MacCormack, MacCormick, McCormack, McCormick, McCromick    
MacCorquodale    
MacCourt, MacCort, McCord    
MacCoy, McCoy   'Son Of Aodh'
MacCracken, McCracken    
MacCready, Macredie    
MacCruddan, MacCrudden, Cruden    
MacCuill    
MacCulloch, MacCullough, McCulloch, McCullough    
MacCune    
MacCuolahan    
MacCusker, Mccusker    
MacDaid    
MacDermott, McDermott, Carmody, Kermode, Kermody, Diarmid O'Duibhdiorma  
MacDevitt, McDevitt, Devitt    
MacDonagh, MacDonough, McDonough    
MacDonald, McDonald    
MacDonnell, McDonnell Mac Domhnaill  
MacDowel, McDow?    
MacEachern    
MacElderry    
McElhatton    
McEllgunn    
MacElligot, MacElligott    
MacEllistrim    
MacEnery    
McEnhill    
MacEnroe, MacEnchroe    
McEntee    
MacEochagan    
MacEvilly    
MacEvoy, McAvoy, McEvoy,    
MacFadden, McFadden    
MacFall    
MacFarland, Macfarlane, Parlan MacPartholain, Mac Pharlain  
McGaghran, McGaughren    
McGalloway, Galwey    
MacGann    
MacGarrigle    
MacGarry, McGarry, Garry    
McGaughy, McGahey    
McGauley, Gaule    
McGavisk    
McGaw    
MacGee, McGee, Magee, MacGehee? MagAedha  
MacGeogh, McGeough    
MacGil, MacGill, Magill, Gill MacGiolla  
MacGillycuddy, McGillicuddy    
McGilton    
MacGinley, McGinley, McKinley    
MacGinn, McGinn, McGing    
McGinty, McGinity    
McGivney    
MacGlashan    
MacGlinchy    
MacGlynn    
MacGolderick, MacGoldrick, McGoldrick, Goderich, Golding, Goulding, Golden, Goldrick, Waller MacUlahairg  
McGonigal, McGonigie    
McGourty    
MacGovern, McGovern    
MacGowan, MacGowran, McGowan, O'Gowan, MacGoohan? Gowran Mac an Ghabhann smith
McGrail, McGreal    
MacGranahan, Granaghan, Granahan    
MacGrane, MacGreine    
MacGrath, McGrath, MacGraw, McGraw    
McGreevy    
MacGrogan, Grogan    
McGuckin, Guckeen, Guckian    
McGuigan, Maguiggan, Goodwin, Godwin MacGuiggan  
MacGuinness, Macginnis, McGinnis, MacGenis, McGuinness, Guiness    
MacGuire, McGuire, Maguire, Macgwire    
MacGuirk, McGuirk    
McGunn    
MacHoneen, Green, Greene, Tonyson, Tennyson MacUaithnin  
MacHugh, MacQue, McHugh, McCue    
McIlmail, McIlmale    
MacIlrea, Kilrea (Gray) MacGilli-Riabhaig  
MacIlroy, McElroy    
MacIlvany    
McIlveen    
MacIlvenna    
McIlwee    
MacInerney, McInerney    
MacIntyre, McIntire, McIntyre    
MacInver, Maginver, Gaynor MacFinnbhair  
Mack    
Mackay, Mackee, Mackey, MacKey, McKay, McKee    
McKean, McKane    
McKechnie    
McKeever, McGeever    
McKeighry    
MacKelvey, McKelvy    
Macken MacCuinn  
MacKenna, McKenna Mac Cionnaith  
MacKeon, Mackeone, Mackeown, McKeown, MacOwen MacEoghain  
McKiernan, Kiernan    
MacKinnawe    
McKinney, Kinney    
McKinnon    
McKitrick, McKittrick    
McLaren    
MacLarty, Larety?    
MacLaughlin, MacLoughlin, McLaughlin, McLouglin, Magloughlin, O'Loughlin, O'Laughlin, Loughlin Mac Lochlainn  
MacLean, McLain    
MacLysaght, Lysaght    
McMaham    
MacMahon, McMahon, McMahan, (Matthews), Fitzursula?    
McManamin, McMenamin    
MacManus, McManus    
MacMathan    
McMerriman, Merryman, Merriman MacGillimore  
MacMonagle    
McMullen, Mullan, Mullane, Mullen    
MacNamara, McNamara    
MacNamee, McNamee, Meath, Mee    
McNaughton, Naughton    
MacNebo, MacNaboe   'victory'
McNeese, MacNeice    
MacNeill, MacNeil, McNeil Mac Neill Son of Neill
McNellis, McNelis, McNelly, Nellis Mac Niallais  
McNerney    
MacNevin, Nevin    
McNicholas    
MacNulty, McNulty    
MacParlan, McParlan, McParland, McParlin, Bat, Bats, Batson, Bateson MacPartholain  
McPike, Pike    
McQuade, Quaid    
MacQuilkin, MacCulkin?    
MacQuillan, MacQuillen, McQuillan    
MacQuilly    
MacQuirk, Quirk, Quirke    
MacRaith    
MacReamoinn    
McRickard    
MacRory, MacCrory, McCrory, McCrary    
MacShane, McShane    
McSherry    
MacSorley, McSorley, McSloy?    
MacTague, MacTeig, McTigue, (Montague, Montagu) MacTaidhg  
MacTavish, MacIltavish MacGilla Samhais  
MacUlhaney, McElhinney    
MacVeigh, McVeigh, McVeigh    
McVerry    
McWay, McWey    
McWilliams    
Madden    
Madigan    
Magauran    
Magettigan O'h-Eitegein  
Magilsinan Magilsitnan  
Magnan O'Maghnain  
Magoran, Orume, Orme Mac Odhrain  
Magunshinan    
Mahaffy    
Mahaney    
Maher, Mahar    
Mahonen    
Mahoney, O'Mahoney, O'Mahony, Mahonny, Mahorney    
Maines    
Makens    
Malcan, (Singer) O'Maoilcana  
Malia    
Mallin, Mallon, Mallen O'Mailina  
Malloy    
Malone O'Maoileoin  
Maloney, Malony, Malonny, Mullowne, Mullowney, Mullooney O'Maoilbloghain  
Mandy    
Mangan, Mongan, Mungen O'Mongain  
Manley, Manly    
Mannion, (Manning) O'Mainnin  
Mannix, Manix    
Markam, Horseman, Ryder O'Marcachain  
Markey, Markley    
Maroney    
Marr    
Marren    
Maskey    
Massey, Massie    
Matchett    
Mawhinney    
May    
Mayclin    
Mayo    
Meachar    
Meade    
Meagher    
Meehan O'h-Emeachain  
Meekin    
Meenehan, Meenan? Minahan, Mynahan O'Muimhneachain  
Megahey    
Megarity    
Meighan    
Melaven    
Mellan, Mellon, Mellen O'Mellain  
Melloy, Meloy    
Melody    
Menagh    
Menton    
Mergin, Bergin, Bergan, Bergen O'Aimirgin  
Mernagh    
Meyler    
Mhaolain    
Miley    
Millan    
Millett    
Milford O'Mulfover  
Millia    
Milligan    
Millikin    
Minikin, Minnick    
Minto    
Moghan, Mohan O'Mochain  
Molan    
Molina O'Maoilfhiona  
Molloy    
Molone, Moloney    
Monaghan, Monahan, Monohan, Mongan O'Muineog  
Monarty    
Monteith    
Moody    
Moonen    
Mooney, Meeny O'Maoinaigh  
Moraghan, Morahan    
Moran O'Mughroin  
Morell    
Morley O'Murgally  
Moriarity, Moriarty, Moriaty    
Moroney, Moroni    
Morrin O'Morain  
Morrissey, Morrisy O'Muirgheasa  
Morrow    
Motley, Mottley    
Moyles, Moiles, Moles    
Moynagh O'Maonagh  
Moynihan    
Mugan    
Muintirceallaigh    
Muintirlideadha    
Mulally    
Mulcahy    
Muldoon, Muldown O'Maoilduan  
Mulgrew, Mulgrue    
Mulharen, Mulhearn, Mulheron    
Mulholland, Mullholan, Mullholand O'Maoilcallain  
Mulkeen    
Mulkeerrinn    
Mullally    
Mullaney    
Mullarkey    
Mullattin, Molohan, Molohon O'Maoilaithin  
Mulligan, Mullgan (Baldwin) O'Mulligan  
Mullin, Mullins    
Mulratty, Malet, Ratten, Rait O'Maoilraite  
Mulrenan, Mulrennan O'Maoilbhrenain, O'Maoilbhreanainn Follower of St Brendan
Mulrooney, Moroni O'Mulrony  
Mulroy, Roy O'Maoilruaidh  
Mulroyne O'Maoilruain  
Mulvaney, Mulvanney, Mulvany    
Mulvey    
Mulvihil, Mulvihill, Mulvehill    
Mundell    
Mungavan    
Munley    
Murdock    
Murnaghan, Mynahan    
Murphy, Morphie, O'Murphy, MacMorrow, MacMarray, MacMurray, MacMurrough, Morell O'Murchadha, O'Murchada, MacMurchada Murchadh sea-warrior
Murray O'Muireadhaigh  
Murtagh, Murtaugh, Murty, Mortimer    
Mylett    
Myrick    
Nagle    
Nangle    
Nash    
Neal, Nealon, Neilan    
Neary    
Nee    
Nelligan    
Nesbit, Nesbitt    
Nesdale    
Nimmons    
Nogan    
Nohilly    
Nolan, Noolan, Nolin, Nowlan O Nuallain, O'h-Uallachain, MacUallachain, MacCuolahan, Desc Of Nuallan
Noone, Noon, Noonan, Nuana O'Nuadhain  
Norris    
Nugent MacGunshenan, Magunshinan  
Nunnally    
O'Biernes    
O'Boye    
O'Brien, Brine O'Briain Desc of Briain (Brian Boru?)
O'Briun, Briun, Brin O'Beirne  
O'Buhilly    
O'Carroll, Carroll    
O’Corráin    
O'Cuinneagain    
O'Cunig    
O'Dea    
O'Donall, O'Donell, O'Donnell, O'Donnell O'Domhnaill  
O'Dowd, O'Dowda, Dowd, Dowdy, Doud O'Dubhda  
O'Faelechoin    
O'Falvey    
O'Faolain    
O'Flarety    
Ogan    
O'Gara    
O'Grady, Grady    
O'Hara, O'Harra    
O'Hardy    
O'Hayer, O'Hare, Hare O'h-Ir, O'Hir  
O'Hehir, Hehir, O'Hea, O'Haire, O'Hare, Hare O'h-Aichir  
O'Hilly    
O'Hiskeen, O'Histeen, Hastings O'h-Uisgin  
O'Hora, O'Hore    
O'Horrigan    
O'Howen, Owens O'h-Eoghain  
O'Keefe, O'Keeffe, Keefe    
O'Laodhog    
O'Leary, Leary    
O'Malley, Maley    
O'Meara, O'Mara, Meara, Mara O'Mearadhaig  
O'More O'Mordha  
O'Mulloy, Mulloy    
O'Neal, O'Neil, O'Neill, Neele, Neely   Desc of Neill
O'Riordon, Riordan, Reardon, Readon    
Orman, Orr    
O'Rourke, O'Roark, Rourke, Roark, Rooke O'Rourke  
O'Shea, Shay, Shea, Shaw O'Seagha

O'Seghdha

 
O'Sullivan, Sullivan, Silver, Silvers O’Suilleabhain, O'Suileabhain Suil - 'eye' + Levan, a Celtic god
O'Toole    
O'Trehy    
Pace    
Padden, Paden    
Paibht    
Palmer O'Mulfaver  
Parkhill    
Parle    
Patton    
Payne    
Pender    
Perry    
Phelan MacGiolla Fhalain  
Pierce, Peirce    
Plannery    
Plunkett    
Power, Powers    
Prendergast, Pendergast    
Price? O'Luachain  
Punty    
Quaine, Quan O'Cuain  
Qualey    
Quealey    
Quigg    
Quigley O'Coiglidh  
Quilligan    
Quinan    
Quinlan    
Quinlivan    
Quinn MacCuinn, O'Cuinn Desc of Conn
Rabbit, Rabbitt    
Radden, Ravan, Radwin O'Radubhain  
Rafferty O'Rabhartaigh  
Rafter, Raftery MacReachtagain  
Rainey    
Rattigan, Ratigan, Rhatigan    
Ratty    
Rea    
Regan, Reagan, O'Regan O'Riagain  
Reavey    
Redden, Reddin    
Redican    
Reed, Reid, Reedy, Ready, Reidy    
Reen
Reilly, Riley, O'Reilly, O'Rielly, O'Reiley, O'Rahilly O'Ragailligh Desc of Ragaillach
Relihan    
Renehan, Ranahan    
Riddle    
Rigney    
Roach, Roache, Roche    
Robey, Robie, Roby    
Rock, Rocks    
Roddy? (Rogers) O'Ruadhraigh  
Roden, Grayden Mag Rodain  
Rogan, Rohan    
Rolan, Rollan, Rollin, Rowlan, Rowley, Rowland O'Rothlain  
Ronan, Ronayne O'Ronain  
Roody    
Rooney    
Rossiter    
Rowells, Rowles    
Royle    
Ruane, Rowan, Roan O'Ruidhain  
Rusa    
Rushe O'Luachair  
Ruther    
Ryan, Murrian, Murrin O'Mulrian, O'Malvilriain  
Sallery    
Salmon, Salmons, Sammon, Sammons    
Sangster    
Sankey    
Saul    
Scannell, Scanlon, Scanlan, Seanlan O'Scannail  
Scullin    
Scully, Duscully, Scally? O'Duibhscuile  
Sebon    
Seeny, Fox O'Sionna  
Seery    
Semple    
Sexton O'Seisnain  
Sewell, Walker O'Sewell  
Shade O'Sedna  
Shahan    
Shalloo   (Fr Challoux?)
Shanahan    
Shankland, Shanklin    
Shanley    
Shannon    
Sharkey    
Sharvan    
Shaughnessy, Shoughness, Sandys, O'Shaughnessy O'Seachnasaigh  
Sheedy    
Sheehan, Sheahan, Shehan    
Sheehy    
Sheil    
Shelley, Shelly, Schelly, Schely    
Sheridan    
Sherin    
Sherlock    
Sherman    
Sherwin    
Shevlan, Shevlin    
Shields, Shiels    
Shine    
Shortall, Shortell    
Shorten    
Shovlin    
Sieferman    
Silven    
Silvers    
Sims, Simmes, Simpson, Simkins, Simcocks, Simon MacSimoin  
Sinnott    
Skahill, Cahill    
Skelley, Skelly    
Skerrett    
Slattery    
Slavin    
Sloane    
Smytherman    
Snee    
Sollers    
Somers O'Sumaghain  
Somerville, Sommerville    
Speers    
Spellacy    
Spellman    
Spillaan, Spillaine, Spillane, Splaine, MacSpallane, (Spenser) O'Spealain, MacSpeallane  
Stack    
Starkey    
Staunton    
Stoney O'Mulclohy  
Strachan, Strahan    
Straffan    
Sugrue    
Sunagh, Swanny O'Suanaigh  
Suppel    
Suthern    
Sweeney    
Synan MacGila Sinin  
Taaffe, Taffe, Taft    
Tackit O'Tackney  
Taft    
Taggart    
Tallon    
Tangney    
Tansey    
Tarpey, Tarpy, Torpy O'Tarpaigh  
Teague, Tighe O'Teagha  
Teeples    
Teevans    
Tegan    
Tenehan    
Tenpenny O'Tiompain  
Tiernan, McTiernan O'Tighearnain  
Tierney O'Tighearnaigh  
Tiffany, Tiffney    
Timmins, Timmons, Timon, Tymon    
Toal    
Tobin, Toban    
Toffey, Todd O'Toghdha  
Tolan, Toland, Thulis, Tollis O'Tuathalain, O'Tuathlains  
Tolbert    
Tomelty    
Toner, Tonner    
Toody    
Toomey, Twomey    
Tormey    
Torpy    
Trant    
Trautt    
Travers    
Traynor    
Treacy, Tracy, Tracey    
Trench    
Troy O'Turrain  
Tully, Tilly, Tilley O'Taichligha  
Tunney    
Tuohy, Tuhe, Tuhey, Touhy, Towey    
Turley    
Turvey    
Tweedy    
Tynan    
Unckles    
Uriell    
Vail    
Vallila    
Veale    
Waddell    
Wahlen    
Waldron    
Wall    
Walsh, Welch, Welsch, Welsh   A Welshman
Ward Mac an Bhaird Son of the bard
Warrington    
Waterbury    
Waters    
Watt    
Webb    
Weeney    
Weir    
Whatley    
Whelan    
Wittlin    
Wogan    
Woods, Wood O'Coilligh  
Woulfe, Wolfe MacTyre

O'Faelechoin

 
Wylie    
Wynn, Wynne, Mulgeehy O'Maoilgaoithe  
Yeates    

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