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Spain

Capital : Madrid

Size: 195 000 sq m Popn: 39 085 000

Alava, Albacete, Alicante, Almeria, Andalucia, Aragón, Asturias, Avila, Badajoz, Pais Vasco (Basque), Barcelona, Burgos, Cáceres, Cadiz, Catabria, Castellón, Castilla-la-Vieja / y Leon, Castilla-la-Mancha /la Nueva, Cataluna (Catalonia), Léon, Ciudad Real, Cordoba, Cuenca, Extremadura, Galicia, Granada, Guadajara, Guipuzcoa, Orense, Navarra, Murcia, Jaén, Malaga, Madrid, La Rioja, La Coruna Huelva, Oviedo, Palencia, Pontevedra, Salamanca, Segovia, Sevilla, Soria, Tarragona, Teruel, Valencia, Valladolid, Vizcaya, Zamora, Zaragoza, Baleares (Balearics),

History

Early inhabitants of the Iberian peninsula included the Iberians, Basques, Celts and Celtiberians. From the C7th BC, Greeks and Phoenicians established colonies on the coast and Carthage was dominant from the C5th, trying to found an empire in the south-east. Rome conquered this around 200 BC and although there was a long struggle, eventually the whole of the peninsula was absorbed into the Roman Empire. In Republican Roman times, it was divided into two provinces, Hispania Ulterior (Further Spain) and Hispania Citeria (Nearer Spain). The latter was less prosperous and not therefore as important to Rome but it was the only land route to the richer part of Hispania so was kept subdued.

Under the Roman Empire, the Iberian Peninsula was divided into Tarraconensis, Lusitania and Baetica, which became united as Hispania. As the Empire broke up, waves of Germanic migrants (Alans, Vandals and Sueves from the Theiss valley and Silesia, Visigoths from further west) established kingdoms. These were eventually absorbed by the Visigoths who had been invited by Rome to set up a kingdom in Spain at the beginning of the C5th.

An independent Christian church became established but this was corrupt and secularised by the C6th. Papal authority was strengthened by an offensive against the Islamic Moors, who had moved into Spain from North Africa after 711, and many new monastic orders (the Cluniacs were particularly strong in Spain) grew up. This did not prevent Islam from gaining a firm hold on the Mediterranean coasts with only Aragon and Castile remaining outside the Caliphate of Cordoba but the 'repoblación' did not begin until around 1150.

The Reconquista (reconquest) soon established new Christian kingdoms in the Iberian peninsula: Portugal (independent by 1139), Navarre, Castile (originally a tributary of Léon) and Aragon. By the mid-C13th, Castile under Alfonso X controlled over half the peninsula (Asturias, Galicia, Estremadura, Andalusia, Murcia, the Basque states), Aragon controlled the East (Catalonia, Valencia, the Balearics) and Portugal to the West but Navarre in the North and the Muslim kingdom of Granada in the South were still independent.

The C14th was a crisis for monarchies all over Europe. The Trastámura Usurpation in 1369 was an aristocratic reaction to Castile's royal authority. Regionalism strengthened with the death of Martin IV of Aragon in 1410 and the 1412 settlement established boundaries despite the Trastámura invasion of Portugal (decisively ended in 1385 at Aljubarrota). It was during this time that resentment towards the Jewish population strengthened. Castile and Aragon were united by the marriage of their rulers Isabella and Ferdinand in 1479 and combined to expel the Moors, reconquering Grenada in 1492. They also financed Columbus' expedition to the New World and many lucrative additions to the kingdoms were made by such 'conquistadores' as Cortes and Pisarro, making Spain one of the greatest world powers. Naples and Sicily were annexed in 1503, Milan in 1535 and Portugal in 1580. All these new conquests became part of the Habsburg lands under Emperor Charles V who also inherited the Netherlands. The Netherlands revolt from 1568 and the defeat of Armada in 1588 began to weaken Spain and constant wars, inflation and a corrupt bureaucracy undermined the economy. The expulsion of Jews and Moors and the loss of religious and civil freedoms also contributed. After the Peace of Utrecht ended the War of the Spanish Succession in 1713, it lost Naples, Sicily, Milan, Gibralter and the remaining possessions in the Netherlands.

There were reforms and economic growth during the C18th but Spain became involved in the Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars, first as an ally, then as an opponent of France. France occupied Spain in 1808 but was expelled with British help in 1814. There was conflict between the monarchists and liberals throughout the C19th and there were revolutions and civil wars in 1820-3, 1833-9 and 1868 as well as many minor revolts and the temporary establishment of a republic in 1873-4. The American colonies were lost between 1810 and 1830 and after the Spanish-American War of 1898, the Philippines and Cuba were ceded to the USA. In the early C20th, there was an increase in republicism and socialism and the dictatorship of Primo de Rivera 1923-30 could not preserve the monarchy under Alfonso XIII. A republic was declared in 1931 and a centre-left alliance, the Popular Front, took office in 1936, introducing agrarian and other reforms which antagonised the landlords and the Catholic Church. General Francisco Franco led a military rebellion which caused the Spanish Civil War of 1936-9. He was victorious, with the help of the Nazis in Germany and the Fascists in Italy, and established a military dictatorship.

In 1947, Franco allowed the legislature to be revived with limited powers and announced that the monarchy would be restored when he died, naming Alfonso XIII's grandson, Juan Carlos, as his successor. Franco died in 1975, King Juan Carlos became head of state and there was a steady progress towards democracy with a new constitution supported by a referendum in 1978. The main internal problems were the demands for independence by regional extremists and the danger of a right-wing military coup. Adolfo Su« rez, leader of the ruling Democratic Centre Party (UCD), resigned in 1981 and his deputy, Leopoldo Calvo Sotelo, immediately faced an attempted coup by the army in Madrid. At the same time, the military commander of Valencia declared a state of emergency and put tanks on the streets but both uprisings failed and the two leaders were tried and imprisoned. Sotelo's decision to join NATO in 1982 was widely criticized and in October, he was forced to call a general election which he lost to the Socialist Workers' Party (PSOE) under Felipe Gonz« lez. The PSOE had fought the election on the promise of removing Spain from NATO and bringing in nationalization but Gonz« lez's nationalization programme was extremely selective and the decision on NATO was put to a referendum which voted to remain a member. Spain became a full member of the European Community in January 1986 and Gonz« lez was re-elected in July. The country became a member of the Western European Union in November 1988. Although the PSOE gained only 175 out of the 350 seats in parliament, it retained power under Prime Minister Gonz« lez. In 1991, major tax reforms were made to try to help the economy.

Rulers of Spain

Arab Emirs of Spain/Caliphs of Codova

Name Reign Family Spouse
al Hakam I c 806-22    
Abd-ar-Rahman II 822-52    
Muhammad I 852-86    
al Mundhir 886-8 son of Muhammad I  
Abdallah 888-912 brother of al Mundhir  
Abd-ar-Rahman III 912-    
       
al Hakam II 961-76    
Hisham II 976-1009 dep    
Muhammad II 1009 dep rest. 1010-3    
Sulayman 1009-10 rest 1013-6    
Ali ibn Hammud 1016-18    
Abd-ar Rahman V 1023 dep    
Muhammad III 1023-5    
a Hammudid 1025-7    
Hisham III 1027-31 dep    

Caliphate abolished, separate Moorish kingdoms established in Andalusia

Navarre

Name Reign Family Spouse
Garcia Ximenez 856-80 established kingdom  
Fortunus 880-905 son of Garcia Ximenez  
Sancho Garcia I 905-26 son of Fortunus  
Garcia I 926-70 son of Sancho Garcia  
Sancho II 970-94 son of Garcia I  
Garcia II 994-1000 son of Sancho II  
Sancho III the Great 1000-35 + Nav 1028 son of Garcia II  
Garcia III 1035-54 son of Sancho III  
Sancho IV 1054-76 son ofGarcia III  

defeated by

     
Sancho V Aragon +

Alfonso Castile/Leon

     
Indep. Regained      
Garcia IV Ramirez 1134-50    
Sancho VI the Wise 1150-94 son of Garcia IV  
Sancho VII the Strong 1194-1234 son of Sancho VI  
Theobald I 1234-53 Count of Champagne adopted by Sancho VI  
Theobald II 1253-70 son of Theobald I  
Henry I the Fat 1270-4 son of Theobald I  
Joanna I 1274-1305 daughter of Henry I Philip IV of France
Louis 1305-29 V of Fr son of Joanna I  
Joanna II 1329-49 daughter of Louis Philip of Evreux
Charles II the Bad 1349-87    
Charles III 1387-1425 son of Charles II  
Blanche 1425-   John of Aragon
John II -1479   Blanche
Eleanor 1479- daughter of John II Francis Phoebus of Foix
Catherine 1483- sister of Francis Phoebus of Foix John d'Albret
Jeanne      

Burgos / Castile

Name Reign Family Spouse
Ferdinand I 1033-65 son of Sancho III Navarre  
Sancho II -1072    
Alfonso I the Battler 1073-1109 (VI Leon) defeated SanchoII  
Urracca 1109-26 daughter of Alfonso I + VI Alfonso I of Arag/Nav
Alfonso II + VII 1126-57 son of Urracca  
Sancho III 1157-8 Castile son of Alfonso II  
Ferdinand II 1158-88 Leon son of Alfonso II  
Alfonso III + VIII 1158-1214    
Alfonso IX L 1188-1230 son of Ferdinand II  
Henry I 1214-7 son of Alfonso VIII  
Berenguela 1217-52 daughter of Henry I Alfonso IX Leon
Ferdinand III 1217-52 C 1230 L son of Berenguela + Alfonso IX  
Alfonso X 1252-84 son of Ferdinand III  
Sancho IV 1284-95 2nd son of Alfonso X  
Ferdinand IV 1295-1312 son of Sancho IV  
Alfonso XI 1312-49 1325 maj son of Ferdinand IV  
Pedro I 1349-69 exp son of Alfonso XI  
Henry II 1366-79 Trastamere  
John I 1379-90 son of Henry II  
Henry III 1390-1406 son of John I  

Alfonso V

1396-1458 L+C+Sic

   
John II 1406-54 son of Henry III  
Henry IV 1454-74 son of John II  
Alfonso the Imposter 1474    
Isabella 1474-1504 daughter of John II Ferdinand of Aragon
Ferdinand V 1469-   Isabella of Castile
Philip I the Handsome 1506 C son of Emperor Maximilian I Joanna/Juana la Loca
Juana la Loca 1505-55 daughter of Ferdinand and Isabella Philip of Flanders

Spain

Habsburgs

Name Reign Family Spouse
Charles I (HRE V) 1516-56 HRE 1519   son of Juana + Philip
Philip II 1556-98 son of Charles V 1 Mary of Portugal

2 Mary Tudor

3 Isabelle, daughter of Henry II of France

4 Anna, daughter of Maximilian II

Philip III 1598-1621 son of Philip II (4)  
Philip IV 1621-65 son of Philip III  
Charles II 1665-1700 son of Philip IV  

Bourbons

Name Reign Family Spouse
Philip V 1700-46 Duke of Anjou Isabella Farnese
Ferdinand VI 1746-59 son of Philip V  
Charles III 1759-88 son of Philip V  
Charles IV 1788-1808 son of Charles III Maria Louisa of Parma
Ferdinand VII 1808 dep.    

Joseph Napoleon

1808-13

   
Ferdinand VII restored 1813-33    
Isabella II 1833-68 daughter of Ferdinand VII Francisco de Assisi

Provisional Govt.

1868-70    
Amadeus I 1870-3 abd. Savoy  

First Republic

1873-4    
Alfonso XII 1874-86   Maria Christina of Austria
Alfonso XIII 1886-1931 dep.   Ena, granddaughter of Victoria of England

Second Republic

1931-9    

Fascist State, Franco

1939-75    
Juan Carlos I 1975- grandson of Alfonso XIII Sofia, daughter of Paul of the Hellenes

Spanish Names

Spanish Names of Biblical Origin

As Spain is a strongly Catholic country, Biblical names are popular and many names commemorate Christian saints and festivals.

Male

Given Name and Variants Diminutives Meaning
Abel    
Abrahamo   Abraham
Adán   Adam
Andrés, Andrea   Andrew
Ángel, Angelines   'angel'
Ariel    
Baltasar, Baltazar   Balthazar
Bártolemé Bartoli, Bartolo, Barto Bartholomew
Benjamin Benja  
Bernabé, Bernebé   Barnabas
Cristobal , Christobal Cristo Christopher
Danilo   Daniel
David    
Efraín, Efren   Ephraim
Elia, Eliu   Elias
Eliseo   Elisha
Esdras   Ezra
Estéban Este Estes Stephen
Ezequiel   Ezekiel
Gabriel    
Gaspar   Caspar
Isaias, Isaio, Isias   Isaiah
Israel    
Jacobo, Jago, Yago, Jaime   James/Jacob
Jairo    
Joaquin   Joachim
Jobo   Job
Jonatan   Jonathan
José, Joseba Josecito, Joseito, Joselito, Pépé, Pepito, Pepillo Joseph
Josué   Joshua
Juan Juanito John
Lazaro   Lazarus
Lucás   Luke
Magdaleno   Magadelene (female)
Marco, Marcos, Marciano   Mark
Mateo, Matteo   Matthew
Melchor   Melchior
Miguél   Michael
Moise, Moises   Moses
Noe   Noah
Pablo, Paulino   Pau;
Pedro Perico, Pero Peter
Rafael   Raphael
Rubén   Reuben
Salamon, Salomon, Salomone   Solomon
Sanson, Sansone   Samson
Santiago Tiago St James
Saul    
Serafin   'seraphim'
Simon    
Tadeo, Tadzio   Thaddeus
Timeteo, Timoteo   Timothy
Tomas   Thomas
Uriel    
Yoel   Joel
Zacarias   Zachary

Female

Given Name and Variants Diminutives Meaning
Ana Anita, Anica Anne
Andrea    
Ángela Angelina, Angelita, Angélica  
Bartola   Fem of Bartholomew
Damaris   Gk New Testament
Daniela   Fem of Daniel
Debora   Deborah
Dina   Dinah
Estefanía, Estefana   Fem of Stephen
Ester   Esther
Eva   Eve
Gabriela   Fem of 'Gabriel'
Isabel, Isabella, Elizabet Elisa, Eloisa, Elsa Elizabeth
Ivana   Slavic fem of John
Josefina Pepa, Pepita Fem of Joseph
Juana, Joana Juanita Fem of John
Judit   Judith
Lilia, Liliana   from Elizabeth
Magdalena Magda, Malena Magdalene
Marta Martita Martha
Melchora   Fem of Melchior
Miguela, Micaela, Miguelita, Misia (from Pol) Fem of Michael
Myriam   Miriam
Noemi   Naomi
Paolina, Paulina, Paula   Fem of Paul
Petra   Fem of Peter
Rafaela   Fem of Raphael
Raquel   Rachel
Rebeca   Rebecca
Rut   Ruth
Salome  

shalom 'peace'

Sara Sarita Sarah
Serafina   'seraphim'
Simona   Fem of Simon
Susana   Susannah
Tomasa   Fem of Thomas

Life of Christ

As well as characters mentioned in the Bible, names of festivals and other aspects of Jesus and words associated with him are used as names.

Male

Given Name and Variants Diminutives Meaning
Ascencio   'ascension'
Bautista   Baptist
Candelaria Candelana, Candela Candlemas
Christiano, Cristiano, Cristian   Christian
Cruz   'cross'
Epifanio   'epiphany'
Evangelista    
Imanol, Emmanuel Manuel, Manolo, Manolito Emmanuel
Jesús Chucho, Chus  
Natalio   masc of Natalia
Nazario   Lat Nazarius (Nazareth
Pascual, Pasqual  

'pesach' Passover

Pastor   Lat 'shepherd'
Salvadór   'saviour'

Female

Given Name and Variants Diminutives Meaning
Aparición   Christ's appearance to apostles
Belén   'Bethlehem'
Cristina    
Epifania   'epiphany'
Evangelina    
Jesúsa   Fem of Jesus
Manola Manolita Fem of Emmanuel
Natividad Nati 'nativity'
Nazaret, Nazaria   Fem of Nazarius
Noelia   Fem of Noel
Pascuala   Fem of Pascual
Pastora    
Salvadora    

Marian Names

'Maria' is sometimes added to boys' names to bring them under the special protection of the Virgin Mary, the golfer, José-Maria Olazabal, being a well-known example. Given names commemorating the life of Mary were originally given to boys and girls but are now usually feminine.

Male

Given Name and Variants Diminutives Meaning
Bonadona    
Carmelo   Our Lady of Carmel
Mario, Mariano   Lat nomen Marius now assoc. with Maria
Marino   Lat nomen Marinus now assoc. with Maria

Female

There is a strong religious influence on girls' names with examples, such as 'Concepción', which commemorate stages in the life of the Virgin Mary or places associated with her. These are often linked with the name Maria itself : María de las Mercedes, María del Amor. Names like 'Rosario' (rosary), which seem to have a masculine ending, are usually taken from a place or article that had a masculine form originally.

Given Name and Variants Diminutives Meaning
Adoración   Adoration of the Virgin
Amparo   protection (i.e of Mary)
Ángeles   Maria de los Ángeles
Angosto Angustia, Angustias Our Lady of Angosto
Anunciación Anuncia Annunciation of the Virgin
Asunción, Ascensión Assunta, Asun, Sunción Assumption of the Virgin
Auxiliadora Auxilio Maria Auxiliadora (Mary the Helper)
Azucena   the madonna lily
Begona   Our Lady of Begona
Carmel, Carmela, Carmen Carmita, Carmelita, Carmencita, Carmo Menchu Our Lady of Carmel
Concepción Concha, Conchita, Chita Immaculate Conception
Conseja   Our Lady of Good Counsel
Consuelo, Consuela, Concuela Chelo, Suelita, Suelo, Suela Our Lady of Solace
Corazón  

heart (i.e Sacred heart of Jesus)

Cruz Crucita cross (Mary at crucifixion)
Dolores Lola, Lolita Maria de los Dolores/Mary of Sorrows
Encarnación Encarna Incarnation
Guadalupe, Gualdalupe Lupita, Lupe Our Lady of G
Idoya   Virgin of Idoia
Inmaculada Inma Maria Inmaculada
Loreto   Italian town where Mary's house appeared
Lourdes, Lurdes   shrine to Virgin Mary in France
Luz   Our Lady of Light
Luzdivina   divine light
Maglu    
María Marieta, Marisa, Marisela, Maritza Mary
Maria-Carmen Maricarmen, Maica  
María-Isabel Maribel  
María-Jesús Chucho, Chus  
María-Josefa Maripepa  
María-Pili Maripili  
María-Rosa Marirrosa  
María-Sol

Marisol, Marizol, Marysol  
Maria-Theresa Maite, Mayte  
Maridel, Meridel    
Maricela, Marisela    
Maricruz    
Marivel    
Mercedes   María de los Mercedes (Our Lady of Ransom/Mercies)
Milagros, Milagro, Milagritos, Milagrosa, Mirari   Our Lady of Miracles
Montserrat, Monserrate, Monserrat Montse, Monse Catalan monastery of the Virgin Mary
Nieves   Our Lady of the Snows
Nuria   Our Lady of Nuria
Paz   Our Lady of Peace
Pilar Pili, Pilita, Piluca Our Lady of the Pillar
Presentación   presentation of Virgin Mary in temple after birth of Christ
Purificación Pura, Purita day on which Mary took Jesus to the temple and was purified
Refugio Fucho Our Lady of Refuge
Remedios   Our Lady of intervention/remedies
Resurección   resurrection
Rocío   Our Lady of the Dew
Rosario Charo Our Lady of the Rosary
Salud   Our Lady of Salvation
Socorro   Our Lady of Perpetual Succour
Soledad Chole Maria de Soledad (solitude)
Trinidad   Holy Trinity
Virtudes   seven Christian virtues

Spanish Names of Latin Origin

Roman influence was strong in Spain and many of their names are still in use, some because they are those of Christian saints or have meanings associatied with Christian qualities.

Male

Masculine diminutive endings include '-itos', '-ito', '-illo'.

Given Name and Variants Diminutives Meaning
Abundi   Abbondio
Adrián    
Agustín    
Albano    
Albino   Albinus
Alirio   Hilarion
Amadeo    
Amado, Amato, Amat   Amatus
Amador   Amator he who loves
Amancio   Amantius, loving
Amando   Amandus
Amarante    
Amor    
Antonio Antoninio, Tono, Tonete  
Augusto    
Aurelio, Aureliano Oriol  
Aureo    
Benigno   Benignus, kind
Benito, Benedicto    
Blas   Blaise
Bonifacio   Bonifatius good fate
Braulio    
Calvet    
Camerino    
Camilo   Camillus
Candido   Candidus white
Castulo    
Cayetano Cayo  
Cecilio    
Celestino    
Celino    
Celio    
Celso   Celsus
Cesar, Cesareo, Cesario    
Claudio, Claudinei   Claudius
Clemente    
Columbo   'dove'
Constantino    
Cornelio    
Crescencio, Cresenciano    
Cresconio    
Crispo   Crispinus
Dalmacio   Dalmatius
Dante  

durare to endure

Desiderio    
Domingo   Dominic
Donato   Donatus
Eladio   Helladius from Gk Hellas
Eligio Eloy Eligius eligere to choose
Emeterio   Hemiterius
Emilio, Emiliano   Aemilius
Fabio, Fabián   Fabius
Fabricio   Fabricius
Fausto Faustino  
Felix, Feliciano Felo  
Fermin, Pirmin   Firminus
Fidel  

fidelis faithful

Fidencio    
Flavio   Flavius
Florencio   Florentius flourishing
Florian Flor Florus, 'flower'
Fortunato   Fortunatus 'fortunate'
Francisco, Francesco, Franco Curro, Frascuelo, Frasquito, Paco, Paquito, Pancho Franciscus, 'a Frank'
Fulgencio   Fulgencius 'shining'
Gabino, Gavino, Gabin   Gabinus 'from Gabium'
Galeno Galo Galenus Gk galene 'calm'
German   Germanus, 'brother'
Graciano   Gratius, pleasing/lovely
Gregorio Goito, Goyo Gregorius 'watchful'
Higinio    
Hilario   Hilarius, cheerful
Honesto    
Honorato   Honoratus honoured
Honorio Honrio Honorius honour
Horacio   Horatius
Ignacio, Inigo Nacho, Nacio Ignatius
Ilalio    
Indalecio   Indaletius
Inocencio, Inocente   Innocentius
Jenaro, Genaro   Januarius
Julio, Julian, Julen Julianillo Julius
Justo, Justino  

justus, fair/just

Juvenal    
Leon, Leonel   'lion'
Leoncio   Leontius
Liberto    
Librado    
Licerio   Lycerius Gk lyke light or lykos wolf
Lop, Lope   Lupus 'wolf'
Lorencio, Lorenzo, Lauro    
Lucio, Luciano   Lucius
Mancio    
Marcelo Marcelino, Marcelito Marcellus
Marcial    
Martín    
Mauricio    
Mauro, Maurilio   Maurus
Maximiliano Maximinio  
Maximo   Maximus
Mercurio    
Modesto   Modestus
Octavio    
Ovidio    
Pacifico    
Patricio   Patricius, 'patrician'
Perfecto    
Pio   Pius 'pious'
Placido   Placidus
Ponciano, Poncio, Ponç   Pontius
Preciliano    
Primitivo   Primitivus 'earliest'
Primo   'first'
Prospero   Prosperus pro spe 'according to one's wishes'
Prudencio, Prudentio   Prudentius 'prudent/provident'
Quintin, Quinto   'five'
Quirce   Quiricus
Quirino   Quirinus
Regis   St Jean-Francois Regis
Remigio   Remigius 'oarsman'
Renato   Renatus 'reborn'
Rogelio, Roegelio   Rogelius/Rogellus
Roman   Romanus
Romelio    
Romeo   pilgrim to Rome
Romulo   Romulus
Rosalio   masc of Rosalia
Sabino   masc of Sabina
Sancho, Sauncho   Sanctius
Santos   All Saints
Saturnino   Saturnus, god of agriculture
Sebastian    
Segundo   Secundo
Sergi, Sergio   Sergius
Severiano Seve Severianus
Severino   Severinus
Severo   Severus
Silvano Silvanito Silvanus
Silverio    
Silvestre   'from the woods'
Silvio, Silviano   Silvius
Sixto   Sextus
Sol   'sun'
Taurino    
Tiburcio   Tiberius
Tito    
Toribio    
Urbano   Urbanus
Valentín   Valentine
Valerio   Valerius
Vicente   Vincent
Victorio, VÍ ctor, Victoriano   Victor
Vidal   Vitalis 'life'
Virgilio   Virgilius
Vistruario    
Viviano   Vivianus 'alive'

Female

Feminine forms ('a' ending) of most male names are found. Diminutive endings include '-chita',' cita', '-nita', '-lita', '-lina'.

Given Name and Variants Diminutives Meaning
Adriana    
Agripina   Agrippina
Agustina    
Alba, Albina    
Alegria   Allegra
Alma    
Alta    
Altagracia    
Amada    
Amanda    
Amata    
Anabela    
Analola    
Analucia    
Antonia, Antona Antonieta  
Araceli, Aracelia, Aracely, Araseli   Latin 'ara' altar + 'coeli' sky
Argelia, Arguelia    
Aurelia, Aura, Aurea, Oralia   Lat nomen Aurelius
Aurora   Lat 'dawn'
Balbina    
Beatriz, Beatrisa    
Belicia    
Benita, Benicia   Benedicta
Bibiana    
Blanca, Bianca    
Bonifacia    
Califia    
Camelia    
Camila, Camilla    
Candida    
Caridad   Charity
Carina   from Cara
Cayetana    
Cecilia    
Celeste, Celestina, Celestinia, Celesyna    
Celia, Celina    
Celsa    
Clara Clarisa  
Clarisa    
Claudia    
Clemencia, Clementina    
Columba    
Constanza    
Digna   Lat 'worthy
Dominga    
Domitila    
Dulcinea    
Eliana   Lat nomen Aelianus
Eligia Ligia  
Emilia, Emiliana   Lat nomen Aemilius
Engracia   Lat Encratia
Esmeralda, Esmerelda   Emerald
Esperanza   Hope
Estrella, Estela, Stella   Lat stella, star
Fabiola, Faviola    
Felicidad, Feliciana, Felicita, Felicitas    
Fermina    
Fidencia    
Flavia    
Flor, Flora, Florida, Florina    
Florencia    
Francisca Frascuela, Frasquita, Paca, Pancha, Panchita, Paquita  
Gabina    
Gema    
Gina    
Gloria    
Gracia, Graciana Graciela  
Higinia    
Hilaria    
Honoria   Lat Honorius, 'honour'
Hortencia, Hortensia    
Ignacia    
Indalecias    
Inocencia    
Isaura   Lat 'woman from Isauria'
Jovita    
Julia, Juliana Julieta  
Laura, Lorenza Lorena  
Leticia    
Lina    
Luce-Marina    
Lucía Lucila  
Lucrece, Lucrecia, Lucrezia   Lat nomen Lucretius
Macarena    
Marcela Marcelina  
Marcia   Lat Marcius, from Marcus
Margarita Rita  
Mariana   Lat nomen Marianus
Marina   Lat nomen Marinus
Marquita, Mariquita    
Martina    
Martirio   martyrdom
Maura    
Nidia    
Oria    
Patricia    
Perla Perlita Pearl
Petronella   Lat nomen Petronius
Pia    
Piedad   Piety
Priscila    
Querida    
Quiteria    
Regina, Reina, Reyna    
Renata    
Rogelia    
Romana    
Romelia    
Romina    
Rosa Rosita, Rosalia, Rosalba, Rosana, Rosaura  
Rufina    
Sabina   Lat Sabine woman
Sancha    
Santa    
Sebastiana    
Silvia    
Sol   Sun
Ursula   Lat 'she-bear'
Valentina, Valente, València    
Valeria   Lat nomen Valerius
Ventura    
Victoria   Lat Victorius 'victory'
Violeta, Violante    
Virginia   Lat nomen Verginius

Spanish Names of Greek Origin

Many of these are the names of Christian saints.

Male

Given Name and Variants Diminutives Meaning
Alejandro   Alexander
Alejo   Alexius
Aloisio   Aloysius
Ambrosio   Ambrose
Anacleto Cleto Gk Anakletos, called on/invoked
Anastacio   Gk Anastasios
Aniceto   Gk Aniketos, unconquered
Apolo   Apollo
Aquiles Aquilino Achilles
Arcadio    
Argenis    
Aristeo    
Arsenio   Gk Arsenios male/virile
Artemio   Gk Artemios from Artemis
Basilio   Basil
Calisto, Calixto   Callistus (Gk kalos fair)
Cebrián, Cipriano Cebo Cyprian
Ciriaco   Gk Kyriakos lord
Cirilo   Cyril
Ciro   Gk from Pers Cyrus
Cosme   Cosmo
Damaso   Gk Damasus daman to tame
Damián   Damian
Delfino   From Delphi
Demetrio   Demetrius
Dionicio, Dionisio   Dionysos
Eleuterio   Gk Eleutherios
Elpidio   Gk Elpidios elpis hope
Eneas   Aeneas
Erasmo   Erasmus
Erasto   Erastus
Eudoxio    
Eufemio    
Eufrasio    
Eugenio   Eugene
Eulalio    
Eusebio   Gk Eusebios
Eustacio, Eustaquio   Eustace
Eutropio    
Evaristo   Gk Euarestos well + please
Felipe, Phelipe Felipillo Philip
Feo   Theo
Filomeno   Gk Philomenes love + stength
Geronimo, Jeronimo   Hieronymus
Héctor   Gk Hektor
Heliodoro    
Hipolito   Gk Hippolytos
Ignacio, Inigo Nacho, Nacio Ignatius
Ilalio    
Ireno   Gk Eirenaios 'peaceable'
Isadore, Isidoro, Isidro, Ysidro   Gk Isidoros, Isis + gift
Isauro   masc of Isaura
Jacinto   Hyakinthos
Jorge   George
Leandro   Leander
Leocadio   Gk leukas light/clear
Macario   Gk Macarios 'blessed'
Narciso   Gk Narkissos
Nereo   Gk Nereus, a sea-god
Nestor   Gk nostos 'homecoming'
Nicanor   Gk Nikanor 'victory + man'
Nicasio   Gk Nikasios, 'from Nikasia'
Niceto   Gk Nicetas
Nicodemo   Gk Nikomedes victory + to ponder/scheme
Nicolás, Nicolao   Nicholas
Omero   Homer
Pelayo Peyo Gk Pelagios
Porfirio   Gk Porphyrios
Rito   masc of Rita
Telesforo   Gk Telesphoros
Telmo    
Teodoro Ted Gk Theodoros
Teodosio   Theodosius
Teofilo, Teofilio   Theophilus
Ticho   Gk Tychon
Tirso   Gk Thyrsos
Ulises   Gk Ulysses
Zenaido    
Zosimo    

Female

Given Name and Variants Diminutives Meaning
Aglaya   Gk Aglaia
Águeda, Agata   Agatha
Alejandra, Alejandrina Sandra, Xandra Alexandra
Apolonia   Appollonia
Ariadna, Ariana   Gk Ariadne
Artemisa   Gk Artemis
Barbara, Barbola   Barbara
Basilisa   Fem of Basil
Calixta   Callista
Catalina, (Karina, Katia)   Katherine
Cintia   Cynthia
Cirila   Fem of Cyril
Corina   Corinna
Dalia    
Damiana Damita Fem of Damian
Delfina   Delphine
Delia    
Demetria    
Deyanira   Gk Deianira
Dora    
Eudoxia    
Eufemia   Euphemia
Eufrasia   Euphrasia
Eugenia    
Eulalia, Olalla    
Eustaquia   Eustacia
Felipa   Philippa
Filomena   Philomena
Elena, Helena, Leonor, Leonora Norah Eleanor/Helen
Hermosa    
Inés, Ynez Inesita Agnes
Irene   Gk eirene 'peace'
Isaura   Lat 'woman from Isauria'
Jacinda, Jacinta   Gk Hyacinth
Jorgelina   Georgina
Jovita    
Leocadia   Lat from Gk leukas light/clear
Leocritia    
Leonila    
Lidia   Lydia
Macarena    
Margarita Rita Margaret
Melisa   Melissa
Melosa    
Minerva    
Naida   nayad
Nemesia    
Nerea    
Nereida   Gk daughter of Nereus
Nicolasa   Nicola
Nidia    
Nympha   'nymph'
Ofelia   Ophelia
Olimpia   Gk Olympias
Paloma   'dove'
Sofia Rus: Sonia Sophia
Teodora   Theodora
Teodosia   Theodosia
Teofila   Theophila
Teresa Teresita, Tete Theresa
Veronica, Berenice   Lat from Gk Pherenike
Xenia   Gk 'hospitality'
Ximena, Jimena    
Xiomara    
Xonia    
Zenaida    

Spanish Names of Germanic Origin

Some Germanic names remain from the medieval Gothic period and later borrowings from modern English and German also occur.

Male

Given Name and Variants Diminutives Meaning
Abelardo   Abelard
Adalberto   Adalbert
Adolfo, Adulfo   Adolf
Alberto   Albert
Aldo  

ald or ada

Alfonso, Alonso, Alfons   Ger.
Alfredo   Alfred
Alvar, Alvaro   OG al + war all guard
Amalric    
Anselmo   Anselm
Arbert    
Armando   Fr. Armand
Arnoldo, Arnaldo, Arnau    
Arnulfo   Arnold
Auderico    
Baldomero   bold + famous
Baldovino   Baldwin
Beltran, Bertan   Bertram
Berenguer   Berenger
Bermudo    
Bermund    
Bernal    
Bernardo Bernardino, Bernad, Bernat Bernard
Bertin    
Bruno    
Carlos Carlitos Charles
Conrado   Ger Conrad
Cutberto   Cuthbert
Dagoberto    
Dolfos    
Edelmiro    
Ederoño    
Edgard, Edgardo   Edgar
Edilberto    
Edmundo   Edmund
Eduardo   Edward
Eduino   Edwin
Elodio   masc of Elodia
Enrique, Enrico, Americo, Amerigo Quique Henry
Ermano   Herman
Ermegildo    
Ermengol    
Ernesto   Ernest
Everardo   Everard
Fagildo    
Federico   Frederick
Fernando, Fernendo, Hernando Fernán, Hernán Ferdinand
Filiberto   Filbert 'much' + 'bright'
Gaufred    
Geofredo   Geoffrey
Geraldo, Giraldo   Gerald
Gerardo   Gerard
Gervasio   Gervase
Gil   Giles
Gilberto, Gilabert, Guilabertus   Gilbert
Gildardo    
Gilmar    
Godofredo   Godfrey
Gonzalo, Gunde   OG Gundisalvus
Guaberto    
Gualterio   Walter
Guifre    
Guillelmo, Guillelmus, Guillem, Guillermo   William
Gumaro    
Gustavo   Ger Gustav
Guter, Gutierre    
Haroldo   Harold
Heriberto, Eriberto   Heribert
Hermelando    
Hermengildo   whole + sacrifice
Herminio    
Hug, Hugo   Hugh
Hulberto   Hulbert
Humberto   Humbert
Hunfredo, Onofre   Humphrey
Ildefonso , Ildephonso    
Lamberto   Lambert
Leobardo    
LeÙ n    
Leonardo   Leonard
Leopoldo   Leopold
Luis Luisito Louis
Medardo   + hardy
Mundo, Muño    
Norberto   Norbert
Odilon   Otto
Oliveiro, Oliverio, Oliviero, Olivar Olo Oliver
Osmundo   Osmund
Osvaldo, Oswaldo   Oswald
Oto, Oton   Ger Otto
Rainerio   Rainer
Ramiro   Lat Ramirus from OG
Ramón, Raimundo, Raymundo Moncho Raymond
Ranolfo   Ranulf
Raúl   Ralph
Reinaldo, Reynaldo, Reinol Reinol Ranald/Reynold
Ricardo, Ricart   Richard
Rigoberto    
Roberto   Robert
Rodolfo   Rudolf
Rodrigo Ruy Roderick
Rogerio   Roger
Rolando, Ralondo, Rolado Orlando Roldan, Roldanillo Roland
Romildo    
Ronaldo   Ronald
Roque  

hrok 'rest'

Rosendo, Rocendo   fame + path
Ruperto   Rupert
Sandalio   - Lat Sandalius from OG sand true + ulf wolf
Tebaldo, Teobaldo   Theobald
Ubaldo    
Walme   Ger Waldemar
Wilfredo   Wilfred

Female

Many of these are feminine forms of the masculine names listed above.

Given Name and Variants Diminutives Meaning
Ada    
Adela, Adelaida, Adelina, Adelita, Adeliz, Aleida, Alicia    
Alberta    
Alda    
Aldegunda    
Alina    
Alphonsia    
Amalia, Amelia Amelita  
Anselma    
Bernardina    
Berta   Bertha
Bertunga    
Borja    
Brunilda    
Carla, Carlota   Charlotte
Carola, Carolina   Caroline
Casilda    
Clotilda, Clotilde   Fr Clothilde
Edelmira, Elmira    
Eldora    
Elodia   Foreign + wealth
Elvira Elvia Foreign + true
Emidia    
Emma, Ema  

Ermen entire

Enriqueta   Henrietta
Erica, Erika    
Ermessèn, Ermessendis    
Erminia, Herminia    
Evelia, Eveline   Evelyn
Fernanda Fernandina  
Frida   Freda
Gertrudis   Gertrude
Giralda    
Gisela    
Griselda, Grisilda    
Guillelma, Guillema Guillermina, Vilma  
Gumersinda Sinda man + path
Herlinda   OG Herlindis
Hermelinda    
Hermila    
Hilda Elda  
Huera    
Idalia, Idalitza    
Imelda, Ismelda    
Irma    
Leobarda    
Linda   OG 'serpent' or Sp 'pretty
Luisa    
Matilde    
Nilda    
Nuncilo    
Oliva, Olivia    
Otilia   OG Odila, fem of Otto
Ramona, Raimunda    
Ricarda    
Rigoberta    
Roberta    
Romilda   fame + battle
Rosenda    
Yolanda    

Spanish Names of Various Origins

Male

Given Name and Variants Diminutives Meaning
Adelio    
Aden    
Aglahir    
Aliecer    
Amentario    
Anibal    
Anier    
Ansuro    
Ariando    
Arias    
Artal    
Arturo    
Asier    
Atilano    
Aznaro    
Azul    
Baudelio    
Bibiano    
Blasco    
Botello    
Braulio    
Casimiro   Slavic destroy + famous
Ceandro    
Chago    
Checa    
Cheche    
Chepe    
Chumo    
Confesor    
Dario    
Delmiro    
Diego   Lat Didacus may be native Iberian
Dolcet    
Elizardo    
Evelio    
Ferrer   St Vincente Ferrer
Froila, Froilan, Froylan    
Frutos    
Furtado    
Galsino    
García    
Gelacio    
Gelmiro    
Ginés    
Gombal    
Gomez    
Gudesteo    
Guerau    
Heli    
Illán    
Iraido    
Javier   St Francis Xavier
Jerano    
Jimeno    
Jorrin    
Ladislao   Slavic 'rule + glory'
Lidon    
Lino    
Llanos    
Machado    
Melquiades    
Menendo    
Mincho    
Miró    
Monico, Moniko    
Naike    
Oalo    
Ofelio    
Ondino    
Ordoño    
Oriol    
Oscar    
Osoro    
Otoniel    
Pánfilo    
Perpinyà    
Piorno    
Pitin    
Reyes    
Rios    
Rubio    
Sagrario    
Sarracino    
Segio, Seguinus    
Servando    
Siro    
Sotero    
Stanislao   Slavic government + glory
Suero    
Taio, Tajo    
Telo    
Uxue    
Velasco, Belasco Vasco Basque 'crow'
Vedillo    
Vela    
Venceslás, Venceslao    
Vennancio    
Vermudo    
Vimaro    
Vitin    
Vladimiro    
Weterio    
Ximeno, Ximenéz    
Yoelvis    
Yolebi    

Female

Given Name and Variants Diminutives Meaning
Abrienda    
Aida    
Ainara    
Ainoa    
Alameda    
Alandra    
Almudena    
Amaia, Amaya    
Amira    
Arabela    
Arsendis    
Ayelen    
Brigida    
Chalina    
Covadonga    
Danelotti    
Daria    
Driulis    
Elba    
Enedina    
Erendira    
Fuencisla    
Fuensanta    
Gala    
Genoveva    
Gladis    
Haydee   Haidee or Heidi
Helida    
Iraida    
Leire    
Libia    
Loida, Loyda    
Magola    
Mayela    
Mayor    
Mayra    
Melba    
Mencía    
Migdalia    
Milena   Cz grace
Mireia, Mireya   Prov Mireille
Monica   Phoenician (mother of St Augustine)
Natacha   Rus dim of Natalia
Necha    
Nelida    
Nina    
Norma    
Nuela    
Nunia    
Obdulia    
Oriol    
Reseda    
Roxana    
Samanta    
Soraya    
Sororro    
Sotera    
Tasia    
Titbores    
Vanesa    
Vanina    
Velia    
Xaviera    
Yadira    
Yesenia    
Yudalis   (Cuba)
Zahira    
Zaida    
Zita   Tuscan 'girl' (a saint)
Zoila    
Zoraida    
Zulema    

Catalonia (Sp. CataluÔ

a, Cat. Catalunya)

This autonomous region of north-east Spain was an independent country until the union with Aragon in 1137. It became part of the united Apain of Ferdinand and Isabella in 1479 but linguistic differences were retained. From 1932-9, it was autonomous but lost its priveleges becaue it supported the republicans in the Spanish Civil War (1936-9). Autonomy and the official of the Catalan language were restored in 1980 and the Barcelona Olympics gave the Catalan culture a chance to make itself more widely known.

Catalan Names

Catalan names are closely related to those of the Provençal region of southern France.

Male

Agustí - Augustus Aleix - Alexius Aleixandre - Alexander
Amans, Mans - Amancio Ambròs - Ambrose Andreu - Andrew
Anton, Antoni - Anthony Bartomeu - Batholomew Arnau - Arnold
Benet - Bendict Berenguer - Berenger Bernat - Bernard
Blai, Blasi - Blaise Cebrià - Cyprian Claris - Clare
Cristòfol - Christopher Cugat - Lat Cucuphas Dalmai, Dalmau - Dalmacio
Domenec, Domenge - Dominic Donat - Donatus Enric - Henry
Ermengol - Ermenegildo Esteve - Stephen Felip - Philip
Feliu - Felix Ferr« n - Ferdinand Ferrer - St Vicente Ferrer
Francesc - Francis Guillem - William Hipolit, Polit - Hippolytos
Jaume - James Joan - John Joaquim - Joachim
Jordi - George Josep - Joseph Juìa - Julian
Llàtzer - Lazarus Lleir Lleonard - Leonard
Luc, Lluch, Luich - Luke Mateu - Matthew Lleó - Leo
Llorenç - Laurence Lluis - Louis Manel - Manuel
Marti - Martin Matell - Medir - Emeterio
Micholau Milla - Emilian Miquel - Michael
Muc Narcis - Narcissus Nicolau, Micholau - Nicholas
Pau - Paul Pere - Peter Ponç - Pontius
Quirc, Quirze - Quiricus Nicasi - Nikasios Rafel - Raphael
Roc - Rocco Rufi, Rufim - Rufinus Sadurni
Tirs - Thyrsosr Vicenç - Vincent Renat - Renatus

Female

Agnes Anaïs - Anne Beatriu - Beatrice
Coloma Llogaia - Leocadia Llora - Laura
Miracle Mireio, Mireia Nadal
Neus Nuria - Our Lady of N Remei
Renat Violant  

Surnames

Pujol Savall Subira

Aragon

The area that is now Aragon was Roman province until the C5th AD when it was taken by the Visigoths who lost it to the Moors in the C8th. It became a kingdom in 1035 and grew in strength during the Middle Ages to control most of the eastern area including Catalonia, Valencia, and the Balearic islands. The marriage of Ferdinand II of Aragon to Isabella of Castile in 1479 united the two kingdoms and they combined to expel the Moors in 1492. They also financed Columbus' expedition to the New World. Aragon is now an autonomous region of north-east Spain.

Aragonese Names

Male

Ajan Alifonso - Alphonse Anchel - Angelo
Aroex Artaldo Bastian - Sebastian
Beliran Beturian Bizen
Brun Chabier Chesus, Chuse - Jesus
Chorache Chorche - George Chuan - John
Dabi Dodorol Ebardo - Eberhard
Eutor Fertus Francho - Frank
Guib Guillen Gustau - Gustav
Larpe Lizer Lorien
Mane Obano Oriche
Pietro - Peter Prejun Zelipe - Philip

Female

Ainelle Albira Anchels - Angela
Arrensa Baldesca Beia
Biolan Birchinia Chere
Conzeuzion - Concepcion Eliche Emparanza
Enmeco Esa Estrel, Estrela - Estella
Exena Iguazel Izarbe
Liena Malena Marile
Merzez - Mercedes Naya Nieus
Olaria Orena Pilara - Pilar
Zilia    

Rulers

Name Reign Family Spouse
Ramiro I 1035-65 son of Sancho III Navarre  
Sancho Ramirez 1065-94 son of Ramiro I  
Pedro I 1094-1104 son of Sancho Ramirez  
Alfonso I 1104-34 brother of Pedro I Urracca of Castile/Leon
Ramiro II the Monk 1134-7 brother of Alfonso I  
Raymond Berengar IV 1137-64 Count of Barcelona Petronilla, daughter of Ramiro II
Alfonso II 1164-96 son of Raymond + Petronilla  
Pedro II 1196-1213 son of Alfonso II  
James I 1213-27    
Pedro III 1276-85   Constance of Sicily
Alfonso III 1285-91    
James II the Just 1291- brother of Alf III  
Alfonso IV 1327-36 son of James II  
Pedro IV the Ceremonious 1336-87    
John I 1387-95 son of Pedro IV  
Martin I -1410    
Ferdinand I 1412-6 regent for J II of Castile 2 Germaine de Foix
Alfonso V 1416-58 son of Ferdinand I  
John II -1478    
Ferdinand II 1479-1516    

Asturias

This area is now part of modern Spain. It came under the control of one of the more powerful Iberian kingdoms, Castile, in the C13th. When Isabella of Castile married Ferdinand of Aragon in 1479, the countries were united, later becoming part of the Habsburg empire.

Asturian Names

Male

Aique Arbidel Arxel
Bastiaro Belmiro Celipe - Philip
Chinto Chus - Jesus Clis
Cloyo Demesio Fliz - Felix
Florin Frichoso Gamus
Lain Lico Marcones
Mundo Nalo Olayo
Quilo Restu Xuoco

Female

Anaonda Balesquida Catuxa
Chucia - Jesusa Delaira Fora
Gada Lala Lisina
Llarina Llelles Lua
Marbuena Maruxa  

Galicia

This area was part of the kingdom of Léon which came under Castilian control after the union of 1230. Different forms of names also exist here although they are less common.

Galician Names

Male

Anxel - Angel Anxo Bao
Benvide Bieito Brais
Elixio Fix Guillelme - William
Idacio Locaio Manilan
Millan Nuno Ourente
Paio Roi Rosendo
Senin Tome - Thomas Uxio
Xaime - James Xan Xian
Xiao Xoàn - John Xosé - Joseph
Xurxo    

Female

Angosto - Our lady of A Adega Alla
Amil Antia Baia
Cecia Dores Eteria
Franqueria Iria Noelia
Noemia Pindusa Pomba
Sabela Saque Tereixa
Ultreia Xaquelina Zeitia

Rulers

Oviedo / Leon

Name Reign Family
Alfonso II -833 abd  
Ramiro I 833-50  
Ordono I 850-66  
Alfonso III 866-910 abd  
Garcia I 910-14  
Ordono II 914-23  
Froila II 923-4 brother of Ordono II
Alfonso IV 924-7 abd nephew of Froila II
Ramiro II 927-52  
Ordono III 952-7  
Sancho I the Fat 957-60, 960-7 brother of Ordono I
Ordono the Bad 960

deposed Sancho I

Ramiro III 967-82  
Bermudo II 982-99 uncle of Ramiro III
Alfonso V 999-1027 son of Bermudo I
Bermudo III 1027-37  
Sancho III of Castile 1028-35  

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